The United States is a place where the governing officials are elected. This occurs at the national, state and local level. The people elect the President through the process of Electoral College indirectly, whereas the members of the federal legislature are elected directly through popular vote. There are numerous elected offices at state and local levels. The state law regulates all the aspects of election process such as primaries, eligibility of voters, running the electoral college of each state, and running state and local elections. Article 1 and Article 2 of the constitution describe how the elections for federal government are held. (Constitution)
The financing aspect of the elections has always been a major issue of controversy. Private parties make an abundant amount of contributions to campaigning process in the federal elections. The Federal Elections Commission takes responsibility on regulating various aspects of the election. Some areas of regulation include the right to disclose the financial information of the campaign, enforce provisions of the law such as limits on contributions, overseeing the public funding, and etc.
This paper discusses the entire process and terms associated with the American elections. It shows the process of voting, the voting behavior, Electoral College, election rules, party polarization, redistricting and finally the fairness of the elections. In recent times, the American elections have come in spotlight due to some technical and principle problems, which will be discussed in this paper as well. We will begin with the restrictions that occur during voting and various types of voting behavior.
The method of voting in the United States follows a famous quote you may have heard before, “The winner takes all”. The candidate with the highest number of votes is elected. The eligibility for voting is set out in the constitution and is regulated at the state level. The constitution states expressly that no discrimination shall be allowed on any basis like race, caste, color, creed, sex, or age (18 years or above). These are the basic qualifications for an individual to vote. There are some states that ban convicted criminals from voting for a specific time period or at times indefinitely. There are states that have also banned certain individuals who have been declared as insane or mentally incapable to vote. This leads me to talk about voting behavior.
Voting behavior has taken a lot of time of the political parties in America. Efforts have been put to understand the voting behavior of the individuals and their patterns clearly. This is primarily done to better understand the voter base of one party and as well as that of the competition. The parties want to understand those voters in favor to them so that they can use their time wisely convincing the others who are not in favor of them. Thus it is very essential to understand the voting pattern of the particular area. With this information political...