On December 7, 1941, with Japanese attack on Perl Harbor, all debate over avoiding war and the policy of American isolationism was gone. It was the beginning of a great war that brought death, devastation and finally the victory and power to United States. At the time of Roosevelt’s appointment in 1933, historically crucial events were taking place in Japan, Italy and Germany which had to shape the future and the fate of United States. This paper studies and analyses the major factors which contributed to American success both at home and abroad during WWII in addition to world’s view about American participation in war and bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Despite his internationalist nature and the idea of League of Nations, Franklin Roosevelt paid little attention to foreign relations. Great Depression and domestic policies kept him from supporting League of Nations and World Court, even after German and Japanese withdrawal from League in 1930 couldn’t take him beyond taking expected measures. In addition to adopting a good neighbor policy, Roosevelt continued to work on strong economic foundations. Despite significant disturbance in world, Roosevelt maintained neutrality legislation to stay impartial and isolated. However, German invasion of Poland in 1939 made Americans threatened by the isolationist approach. France and Britain’s declaration of war against Germany made the isolationist idea completely obsolete. U.S provided unlimited support to Britain and later to Soviet Union in order to avoid war but an undeclared war began when a German U-boat sunk U.S. freighter in Atlantic Ocean.
United States resisted Japanese expansionist plan throughout 1930s, invasion and takeover of Manchuria in 1931 and invasion of China in 1937 initiated war in Pacific. American economic pressure over Japan forced changes in Japanese leadership that triggered Perl Harbor and finally pulled America into war. In the beginning of war, Japanese victory in Pacific terrified West Cost Americans. Partial victory for Americans appeared when Japanese capital Tokyo was bombed. It was less of a material loss but huge in terms of psychological attack. It was followed by the Battle of Coral Sea in May 1942 and after that the decisive Battle of Midway Island took place. U.S. aircraft carriers destroyed three out of four Japanese carriers that sabotaged their further plans of invasion and they adopted a defensive strategy.
Tension with Germans also became manifold after devastation of American merchant trade with Britain as U-boats destroyed more than 4,700 merchant ships and 200 warships. Stalin stressed the Allied invasion of France while Roosevelt urged troop’s deployment in North Africa. Allied leaders planned invasion of Italy in 1943 but downfall of Mussolini took eleven months and cost was heavy for American. Despite zero physical harm at home ground, war changed America completely. Millions of Americans worked overseas, women replaced men in factories and...