Social process theory views criminality as a function of people's interactions with organizations institutions and processes in society. Social process theorists believe that children learn to commit crime by interacting with, and modeling the behaviors of others they admire or respect. Social process theory focuses on upbringing and socialization, which stems from parents, peers, or teachers (Siegel, 2011, p. 13-14).
American psychologist B.F. Skinner 1904-1990, developed social process theory he studied behaviorism, which included responses to environmental stimuli and the controlled scientific study of response. This study was termed operant conditioning created through both social and non-social reinforcements. Most learning of criminal behavior occurs in social interactions with other people (B.F. Skinner).
Skinners studies included the study of pigeons that helped develop the idea of operant conditioning and shaping of behavior. His study entailed making goals for pigeons, if the goal for the pigeon is to turn to the left, a reward is given for any movement to the left, the rewards are supposed to encourage the left turn. Skinner believed complicated tasks could be broken down in this way and taught until mastered. The main belief of Skinner is everything we do is because of punishment and reward (B.F. Skinner).
Edwin Sutherland American criminologist 1883-1950 opposed dominant, biological and psychological explanations for crime. He believed criminal behavior is a product of learning through social interactions and peers influence behavior by social interaction. If a peer group is criminal, the individual will perceive this behavior as normal. Sutherland believed there is a criminal life cycle, in which the attitudes vary in content and intensity throughout the criminal’s life (Edwin Sutherland).
American criminologist Ronald Akers 1939-present; is known for his social learning theory of crime, which is based on A differential reinforcement theory of criminal behavior which was first developed by Robert L. Burgess American sociologist in 1966, this theory expanded on the work of B.F. Skinner and Edwin Sutherland.
Ronald Akers believed criminal behaviors learned through social and non-social reinforcements; most learning of criminal behavior occurs in social interactions with others (Ronald L. Akers).
The work of American psychologist Albert Bandura was a focus of study for Ronald Akers. Bandura studied children, he determined when children watch others they learn how to share, aggression, cooperation, social interaction and delay of gratification. Bandura based his work on his classic study of imitation learning.
Bandura determined there are three stages of social learning behavior, cognition and environment. During Bandura’s study, children who saw a model punished for aggressive behavior, exhibited fewer aggressive responses. Children who saw the model...