A Tale of Two Theories
Since the dawn of man, humans expressed themselves through legends and myths, advanced throughout the ages. Now, with increasingly advanced scientific equipment we can see that the universe is far more vast and complex than our wildest dreams could have imagined. I hope in writing this, I can shed some light, regarding some modern beliefs regarding the origin of the universe by answering a series of questions. Regarding some of the common theories that may explain the evolution of the universe. What exactly is the "Big Bang Theory" and how does it work? In addition, how our solar system developed from The Big Bang? I will endeavor to use scientific data to base the evolution of our universe around The Big Bang.
Two theories that I want to explain in regards to the creation of the universe. The first the infamous Big Bang Theory, which will be detailed later. The second is the Steady State Theory. (Weinberg, 1977)
The later hypothesis was created to replace the common belief that the universe was completely static. The expansion of the universe was discovered in 1929 when Edwin Hubble discovered that every galaxy in the universe was moving away from each other, this could only mean the universe was expanding. Hubble found the movement of the galaxies by using a phenomenon known as the Doppler Effect. This effect caused objects moving away from an observer to be “red-shifted", and objects moving towards an observer to be "blue-shifted" (Hawking, 1988)
The expansion was traced backwards through time to discover that all the galaxies had originated from the same point. Which lead to the belief that all matter spawn from that "center of the universe" discovered by Hubble.
The Steady State Theory was very attractive because it featured a universe with no beginning or end. This theory allows scientists to abandon the laws of conservations of mass and energy. Making it plausible that the laws of physics could breakdown at a certain point but more and more evidence gathered against the Steady State Theory, leading to unending modifications to it. Finally, the theory went by the way side with the discovery of the smooth microwave background radiation (radiation so ancient it had shifted right out of the visible spectrum into microwave radiation). A smooth background to the universe suggested that it was hot and uniform – the ideal conditions for the Big Bang. (Weinberg, 1977)
The Big Bang was exactly, what it sounds like - a giant explosion. When this explosion occurred all materials in the universe today (matter, energy and even time) were propelled into a vacuum about 12 billion years ago. The combined mass of the universe was interpolated to a point of zero volume (therefore infinite density). It is impossible to predict what the universe would physically be like because the density of the universe (infinity) cannot be plugged into any physical equation. (Weinberg, 1977)