Graphene is a two dimensional structure that is formed into a honeycomb structure. The honeycomb structure is composed of carbon atoms that form the pattern of hexagons. These structures can form several other structures, which include cylinders, pentagons, and layers of graphene, which still have the same physical properties. The properties of the honeycomb structure allow the graphene to show the electronic properties it has. Since, the two dimensional structure is a flexible structure the properties of the honeycomb are shown. Not only are the honeycomb structures shown, but also since graphene is seen as clear structure when it observes a visible light. The clear materials of graphene shows how objects can be placed over it show how stiff the graphene is.
Graphene is not only stiff it is also a strong material that is thinner than paper. Graphene measures about 1 atom layer thick. The thickness of the graphene can only be seen under a microscope. Since, the atom layer is so thin when scientists look for graphene in materials such as tape its hard to find the graphene. The graphene in the materials is usually oscillated into different pieces. Within those pieces the layers of graphene can cover up huge objects such as an airplane or perhaps a football field.
Although graphene is a two-dimensional structure it still exits in a 3D space. When, looking at the atoms of the atoms the graphene oscillates to form flexural nodes. A flexural mode consists of two out of plane phonons, where each photon is either optical or acoustic. When viewing, the acoustic flexural mode it shows the representation of a membrane that is one atom thick that is in free particle motion. The optical flexural mode is a phase, which demonstrates that it is neighboring atoms to be oscillated in the out of plane. By looking at the photon modes it can lead to a strong energy in the flexural nodes or it can fix the corruption of the phonon modes. Neto, Peres, Novoselov, and Giem state that “Theoretically, the flexural modes should become ordinary acoustic and optical modes in a fully covalent 3D solid, but in practice the flexural modes survive due to the fact that the planes are coupled by weak van der Waals-like forces.” (132) Furthermore, the graphene can be considered as a proscribed membrane where the gaps of a bridge micrometer or a scaffold can only reinforce them.
The perspective of kinetic energy demonstrates how a single particle is dispersed in graphene. Graphene shows how electrons hop in the structure of the honeycomb framework in between the nearest neighbor carbon sites. Kotov, Ochoa, Perrera, Guinea, and Neto state “Unlike square or triangular lattices, the honeycomb lattice is spanned by two different sets of Bravias lattice generators, forming a two component bass with one set for each triangular sub lattice.” (1070) Furthermore, when scaling the kinetic energy with momentum it shows how there is an issue with electron confinement where the energy...