In the critical studies of Held (1987), the political activist and philosopher argues that a contemporary society is now influenced by the contractual patterns of relations. Held argues, “we are told that modern democratic states rest on a social contract, that their economies should be thought of as a free market, where producers, employers, consumers, and employees make contractual agreements” (Held, 1987, p. 782). In this context, society perceives a culture as a free market, as well. Therefore, various philosophers and political activists consider that morality itself could also be perceived from contractual terms. In response to these assumptions, other political theorists also contribute to understanding of a contractual society. Despite the fact that Robert Nozick was not considered to be a political activist and philosophy, his contributions to political frameworks are evident. In particular, Nozick has had a major influence on the analysis of personal identity, as well as the analysis of political right-wing contributions. So, in order to understand why Held introduces claims against the current system, it is essential to consider her social and political views and compare those with the contractual political theories, supporting that the government should serve as a moralizing tool for the community first.
While the both theorists’ contributions have outstripped the boundaries of the political philosophy, Nozick managed to provide new political models for building social medium and consolidating communities (Hoffman & Graham, 2013). Nozick did not believe that a function of the government is to make individuals moral and adhere to moral and ethical principles. Nozick’s liberal outlook provided the analysis of the conditions that existed for individuals to identify the good path form themselves (Hoffman & Graham, 2013). In this respect, the two ideas differ significantly from the conservative views on the political structure because Nozick’s political views do not directly refer to tradition or custom in general. Nozick suggests that there is nothing strange about the authority and principles in his political theories. At the same time, if the government is used for suppressing individuals’ freedoms to match the traditional societal norms, Nozick opposed these norms because it is considered the intrusion of the government into private lives.
Another important issue about Nozick’s political theory is confined to the relationship between capitalists and the restricted role of governmental action. Nozick believes that an individual’s rights are empowered, and his theory will demand extreme efforts for the government to oppose the individual rights (Hoffman & Graham, 2013). According to Nozick, the government’s proper task is to protect individuals and their rights. But in the same instance, the government is not liable for taking holdings and encouraging the welfare of the poor.
In response to these policies, Held still believes that...