An Apologia Of Xenophon Essay

1285 words - 5 pages

“Anabasis” is the Xenophon’s account of the expedition for Cyrus against Persian and the marching home of Greeks. The Greek title of Xenophon’s work, “Anabasis”, referred to a march up country, away from the coast. The title applies only to the first of its seven books. It all ends with the death of Cyrus at the Battle of Cuxana. The Greek mercenary soldiers were left stranded in the “barbarian” world. The rest of the books involves with tales of the Greeks’ discipline, leadership and courage during their journey home. Xenophon’s narrative offers an insight of the character and their political life of a Greek army. Although Xenophon seems to write about the account between the Greek and the barbarian, he presents himself as an important role in the Greek army throughout the rest of the books. He uses a third-person form when describing his own actions as a character. It might suggest that Xenophon is writing an apologia to defend himself and to show his vital role in the expedition.
Xenophon used the third person narrative for introducing his character in the book. He then praises Cyrus, “of all the successors of Cyrus the Elder, no Persian was a more natural ruler and none more deserved to rule”. The Greeks do not desert him after the revelation of his plot against the Persian king because they would likely to get respect from him. Xenophon defines his own position that he came to Asia to become Cyrus’s friend, but not for the money and his own fame. He defends himself for not being ambitious with any military position, “he had come along not as a general, nor as a company commander, nor as a solider”. Throughout the rest of the books, Xenophon has made many remarkable speeches. He encourages the Greeks by regaining their discipline, “discipline makes for survival and lack of discipline has often in the past been responsible for loss of life”, regaining their courage by saying, “brave men survive even extreme peril” and identifying the weakness of the Persian troops, “at night a Persian army is worthless” to arouse the Greeks’ morale against the Persians.
From the narration of Xenophon, he presents an opposition between the Greeks and barbarian (the Greeks referred to the Persians as barbarian). The Persian empires are presented as a large centralized state while the Greeks have relatively small city-states. The Greek armies demonstrate a democratic form of rule. The Greeks assemble their generals to take vote on their proposals whenever they face an obstacle. Their political decision is mainly influenced by the world of divine. Sacrifices are frequently made to the gods and a right action is taken depends on the favorable of an omen. On the other hand, the Perisans are ruled under a form of despotism. At the Battle of Cuxana, the Greeks defeated Tissaphernes‘s troops despite the fact that Persian’s troops had outnumbered the Greeks. The Greeks’ great military skills and tactics have proven to be the best. Also, in Book Three, after the...

Find Another Essay On An Apologia of Xenophon

Xenophon Essay

1059 words - 5 pages Xenophon (Ischomachus) was born in Athens in 428 BC in fairly well off family of an Athenian knight, thus granting to him access to certain privileges of the aristocracy of Ancient Greece. Before his death, Xenophon was exiled from Athens, most likely because he fought under the Spartan king Agesilaus II against Athens at Coronea battle (However, there may have been conducing causes, such as his support for Socrates, as well as the fact that he

Xenophon on women Essay

1440 words - 6 pages Athenian society, including prostitutes and priestesses, Xenophon believed that the most respectable work for an Athenian woman was to be a model wife. This main role was divided into three sub-roles that had to be done in order to be the perfect wife: take care of children, look after the shared property and to be responsible for her servants. Xenophon believed that the main role of a woman is to become a good wife to her husband. In order to do this

The Decline of Sparta

838 words - 4 pages After winning the Peloponnesian war, Sparta had become the most powerful polis in the Greek world. It will be shown that Sparta pursued its goal of dominance through the autonomy clause in the treaty of Antalcidas. Sparta abused the treaty and even broke it, creating the opposition that would eventually defeat them. Sparta, having won the Peloponnesian war (Xenophon, Hellenika 2.23), emerged as the pre-eminent Greek power at the

Assignment Two: Theories pt 2

982 words - 4 pages . “Apologia focuses on the response strategies available to individuals and organizations when their actions violate commonly held public values (Sellnow and Seeger 2013).” Denial is simply what is means, to rejecting an idea or claim is true. Kategoria is opposite of f Apologia and image repair. Kategoria takes on the attack mode vs. the defensive mode. Dramatism is purely drama with respects to human action. Finally we have Narrative theory. This

A Rhetorical Criticism of Tiger Woods

931 words - 4 pages On April 21st, 2010, an American golfer whose achievements made him a legend found himself behind a podium, defending his actions in front of a crowd of family, friends, and a public whom he had shocked. In 2009, Tiger Woods experienced the biggest blow to his career in the form of a car crash and infidelity scandal. Not only was he married with two kids, but he was easily identifiable as a positive role model for children across the world. His

Lycurgus and Spartan Government- With reference to Ancient sources you have researched, explain the Spartan System of Government

1608 words - 6 pages different… country to excel in prosperity” (Xenophon)Ancient sources acknowledge Lycurgus and his contributions to reforms, as an important part of Spartan history. However there is not enough factual evidence to attribute him the creator of the Spartan system.The ancient historians; Plato, Plutarch, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and Aristotle painted a picture of the ancient world of Sparta. Through their accounts we have travelled into a

Great Rulers and What Makes Them Successful

1667 words - 7 pages qualities that made them successful rulers? 2. How does Machiavelli portray the Duke of Valentine and Agathocles? Does he consider them good or bad rulers? Why? 3. Compare and contrast Machievelli’s concept of an effective ruler with the depictions of Cyrus and T’ai-tsung. 4. Which ruler do you feel is the most worthy of admiration: Cyrus, T’ai-tsung, the Duke of Valentine, or Agathocles? Why? Cyrus of Persia and T’ai-tsung are indefinitely

The Recordless: A Socrates Biography

1062 words - 5 pages “The philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime, an enigma, an instructable individual who, despite having written nothing, is considered one of the handful of philosophers who forever changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived”(Nails). A great philosopher named Socrates once changed the very way man perceived nature. Socrates was a man that lived life to its fullest, from being a foot soldier, or hoplite, to freelancing

Political Philosophy: Steering the Middle Course

1615 words - 6 pages Memorabilia, Xenophon recounts the relationship between Socrates and Critias. Critias resents Socrates for giving the opinion of Critias having a swinish passion in desiring Euthydemus, with Euthydemus and others present. Later on, when Critias becomes one of the Thirty, he makes a law forbidding the teaching of the art of speech, an art Socrates possessed. Socrates never directly confronts Critias to address the injustices under his govern. At

“To face the blood and the slaughter” Spartan Society and Values according to Tyrtaeus and Xenophon

1200 words - 5 pages valiantly through the battles. He could be compared to the modern day motivational speaker. The goal was to get the guys rallied up and ready to defend their heritage. Based on the text, there is an understanding that ancient Sparta valued the heroic qualities of war. To be killed in battle was an honor. “His shining glory is never forgotten” claimed Tyrtaeus. To come home valiantly meant that all would behold the soldier. “All men withdraw

Posining The Fly

847 words - 3 pages in to any base indulgence because of me." "No," said Meletus, "but I most certainly know of those whom you have persuaded to listen to you rather than to their parents." (Xenophon, Socrates' Defense, 45)". Meletus, in this statement, acknowledged that Socrates did not corrupt the youth. Meletus was very willing to agree with Socrates' statement. Here, the truth of the charge is brought to question. Socrates does not

Similar Essays

Ethnographic Interests Of Xenophon Essay

1490 words - 6 pages had to bend over and slurp the wine down as if he were an ox”. Xenophon was fascinated by the behavior and customs of the people in the village. He was told that the horse was the animal they sacrificed to the Sun God, so he gave his horse to them. Before the Greeks arrived to Theches, they were attacked by the Taochians and the Chalybians. The most terrifying battles in the Anabasis would be with the Taochians and the Chalybians. Taochians used

Socrates' Service Essay

1330 words - 6 pages of Socrates defending himself by saying that he is aiding Athens. In Xenophon’s version of the AP, he is telling the story of Socrates’ trial as a second-hand account. Xenophon also gives more evidence of Socrates actually defending the claims against him. Specifically, when speaking about Chaerephon’s inquiry with the oracle at Delphi, Socrates said “Now Apollo did not compare me to a god; he did, however, judge that I far excelled the rest of

Socrates: The Most Integral? Essay

1024 words - 5 pages "As for me, all I know is that I know nothing" is a famous quote from Socrates, that describes him very well as the intelligent, humble person that he was. Socrates was born on 469 B.C. in Athens, Greece. He was well known throughout the world for his dialogues and the work of his followers and students such as Xenophon and Plato. He built the foundation for the Socratic Method as well as Socratic Irony. Although everything known about him is

Xenophon´S The Economist Essay

1414 words - 6 pages raised in Athens, he was familiar with the two groups the Athenians themselves considered their enemies: Spartans and Non-Greeks. He had lived in this city and out in the country. He had been a soldier, a mercenary, and an exile. He was familiar with kings as well as slaves. This myriad of life experiences enabled him to accurately depict the different aspects of Athenian domestic economy. The Economist by Xenophon is a Socratic dialogue