An Ad-hoc network is a wireless network. It uses high frequency radio waves for nodes or device communications which increase mobility but decrease the ranges rather than using communication cables between the nodes. Ad-hoc network consists of no infrastructure and no fixed base station and centralized administrator. So, each node in this network act as router or host for direct communication with each other. Then nodes are freely move from one place to another place and it forms the own topology themself. And each nodes are powered by batteries with a limited energy, wherein each node stops functioning when batteries get sanitations. For energy efficient and maximize lifetime of nodes we introduce techniques aimed to minimize power consumption of all nodes by using multicast routing protocol.
Multicast routing protocol is independent of unicast routing protocol. Multicast source node or root node will transmit packets or data to number of receivers’ node in the network. The source node first time broadcast the message and second time it unicast the packet to destination. Before transmitting packets to all receiver nodes the source node first identifies the multicast group nodes in that network. So we introduce techniques to identify the neighbor nodes for multicast group using distance of each node.
2.1 Identification of neighbor node:
Multicast routing protocol consists of unremitting sending the message from source to multiple destinations. It is used in ad-hoc networks. And this multicast routing protocol is efficient way to increase the lifetime of nodes. The nodes will communicate with each other. So, each node should identify the neighbor node for communication within the network or outside the radio range. Hence we introduce distance method to calculate the number of nodes available within this radio range. For example consider each nodes network coverage distance is 100. And initial distance of one node is started from 50. And randomly consider the distance for each node. For e.g: the random distance is 234 now i need to found the neighbor nodes in the network. So, the calculation is 234+100 and 234-100 between these range nodes are considered as a neighbor nodes for communication using multicast group.
Distance=234, Network Coverage Distance=100
Val1=distance + network coverage distance (NCD)
Val2=distance-network coverage distance (NCD)
Printf(“print the neighbor nodes”);
If this above condition is true then it will display the number of neighbor nodes between the range of 134 to 334. So, now we discovered the number of neighbor nodes available within this wireless ad-hoc network.
2.2 Multicast tree initialization:
Multicast routing protocol is sovereign of unicast routing protocol. The unicast protocol will transmit the packet from one source to one destination. It utilizes whole bandwidth of the network. But multicast routing protocol will diffuse packet from one...