Throughout life, people inevitably are evaluated based on their different positions, duties, and situations. As a student studying at school, school performance directly affects the level of academic achievement, while job performance strongly influences the livelihood and financial income of a hired employee. Every person in society is closely subjected to performance appraisal, which is the measurement of performance among individuals. In order to measure peoples’ performance, there are many different kinds of performance appraisals that evaluate how well people are doing with their tasks, and their performance can be rated by everyone including the workers themselves. It is clear that our performance of different tasks deeply influences our life prospects and choices. Nonetheless, raters are humans, who cannot prevent bias and errors which can lead to unfair evaluations. Also, evaluators are not always clear on the standard of evaluation (e.g. Different evaluators can have various ways of ratings on the same person). The study of performance appraisal helps to reduce raters’ bias and errors by improving the accuracy of performance measurements. For organizations, accurate performance appraisals can guide the direction of development and quality control, meanwhile, strengthening the communication between employers and employees. The purpose of this study is to inspect the valid and biased predictors of employee and student performance.
In order to examine employee and student performance, it is important to clarify what performance truly stands for. According to Campbell, McCloy, Oppler and Sager (1993), job performance is an observable action based on meeting organization goals. The Campbell’s Performance Model stated declarative knowledge (DK), procedural knowledge (PK), and motivation (M) as the core elements of performance, following with eight performance components. Also, performance is defined as “criteria”, the evaluation criterion that measures ratees’ achievement and failure, following with five criteria of criteria (Levy, 2010).
These definitions of performance clearly defined the feature of job performance. However, the goal of this study was to examine both employee and student performance. In order to satisfy the need for measuring employee and student performance, a definition based on KASOs was used in this research. KASOs refers to four dimensions of the ratee: Knowledge, Ability, Skills, and Other personal characteristics. Each dimension has two components as the sub-branches. First, under the Knowledge dimension, time management refers to completing work on time, arriving at the workplace on time, and efficiency of time use. The knowledge of responsibility was the degree of actively reaching out for help when needed and the willingness to take over extra missions. Secondly, under the Skills dimension, active learning was defined as effectively applying new concepts that build upon previous knowledge...