1.0 – Introduction
The purpose of this report is to investigate, ascertain and explain the issues of inclusive practice within a specific needs provision of a mainstream primary school, whilst examining and applying theoretical issues of social science to specific needs and inclusion, and thus exploring and assessing the methodological issues applicable to the gathering of data and research regarding specific needs and inclusion. Throughout this report, when referring to 'specific needs', the definition should be regarded as any impairment, disability or specific need (including mental health.)
1.1 – Inclusion, Integration, Segregation, Exclusion and Inclusive Practice
Ainscow (1995) cited in Frederickson and Cline (2009:71), demonstrates a definition of inclusion:
"inclusion implies the introduction of a more radical set of changes through which schools restructure themselves so as to be able to embrace all children"
Therefore, to be inclusive, a school must adapt in order to cater for and suit the needs of their pupils. However, inclusion cannot always be achieved effectively. This term is often misconstrued as integration, although it encompasses extremely significant differences. Ainscow (1995) cited in Frederickson and Cline (2009:71), explains integration:
"integration involves the school in a process of assimilation where the onus is on the assimilating individual (whether a pupil with SEN or a pupil with a different cultural and linguistic background) to make changes so that they can 'fit in'."
Thus, integration insists that the pupil must adapt their needs in order to suit or fit in with the school. Some needs may be easier to adapt than others; for instance a physical disability cannot be adapted or changed, however a child with dyslexia can use an overlay to be able to adapt their needs and access the curriculum. Generally, if integration cannot be achieved then segregation will occur instead. Segregation is the isolation of certain pupils because they are different from the larger group. For example grouping all pupils with specific needs together and taking them out of regular classes to be taught in a 'special class' elsewhere.
When none of these terms apply to a pupil, the only other alternative is exclusion. Exclusion is the refusal or rejection of a pupil from a mainstream school. If this occurs solely because the child has a specific need it may be classed as disability discrimination; a prosecutable crime.
In order to be inclusive, inclusive practices must be adopted. The Deer Valley Unified School District (2012) identify such inclusive practice as creating an environment enriched with extracurricular and small group activities so that every child (no matter what their ability or need) can be educated together. To implement an inclusive practice, the needs and abilities of every single individual should be considered and any information is required to be accessible regardless of those needs.
1.2 – Work-placement: Milton Hall...