Immigration into America is growing at one the fast rates in history. Of those, the Latino population is one of the largest growing and least educated minority groups. They account for the lowest amount of college enrollment and educational attainment of any racial/ethnic group (Bohon, Johnson, &Gorman 2006). In order to improve educational attainment research and polices must emphasis on internal and external factors. Internal factors, such as a child’s education expectation, need to be address and tested to verify how well current programs are performing. External factors, such as parent’s employment status, education status, and socioeconomic status need to be considered when improving or implement policy. These external factors may influence a child’s education expectation, and some form of social welfare policy may be needed to correct for this occurrence. This paper will look at second-generation immigrant education expectation and attempted to examine if a parent’s education, or employment status affects their outlook on the amount of education they expected to earn.
II. Literature Review
Portes and Rumbaut, who wrote the book Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation described the struggle first-and-second-generation immigrant’s encounter throughout the United States. They discussed how one out of five Americans was either first-or second-generation immigrants (Portes & Rumbaut 2001). Further, the topic incorporation has become an issue with first-generation immigrants because of class background, language, and religion (Portes & Rumbaut 2001). This has caused additional studies to look at how second-generation immigrants have incorporated. When compared to first-generation, second-generation immigrants are better off when looking at socioeconomic status (Pew 2013). They tend to have higher incomes, graduate rates, and home ownership, as fewer live in poverty (Pew 2013). However, when compared to other race/ethic groups, second-generation immigrants have struggled to incorporated and adapt to the American lifestyle (Altschul 2011). Now adapting to the American lifestyle is not always bad; however, when considering education expectation and standardized testing, it becomes necessary to adapt. Policy such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, attempts close the gap between academic outcomes by focusing on standardized goals that can be measured over a period of time. Therefore, adapting to the American lifestyle becomes an important external factor when consider a child’s education expectation.
Parent’s socioeconomic status effect of their child’s education expectation
Parental involvement can be a factor that enhances a child’s academic outcome; however, socioeconomic status is a better measurement variable. Immigrant parents are usually at the bottom of the wage gap and over-represent the workers that are paid the least and need the most workforce education (Shields & Behrman 2004). ...