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An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation By Jeremey Bentham.

1239 words - 5 pages

What is Utilitarianism? I believe that utilitarianism is the theory in which actions are right if they produce happiness and wrong if they don’t produce happiness. Happiness is what every human being look forward to. When making a decision, all possible outcomes must be ensured that it will lead to happiness. Utilitarianism is based on the principle of utility .Utility is the ability to be useful while satisfying needs. Utilitarianism is generally considered a moral theory that was found by Jeremey Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and a social reformer. In 1923, he wrote a book called An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Bentham idea was to understand the concept of happiness and that it is the definitive goal to all human beings. Bentham believes in a principle in which humans should be motivated by pain and pleasure, Bentham said in his book, “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure”, this means that humans should chase pleasure and must avoid pain. Utiltranisim is based on these two factors, which follows under the term utility. Utility is usefulness of an action to promote the net happiness of the consequence. Bentham made an equation to calculate the happiness of a moral decision called “Hedonic Calculus” to carry out the theory of Utilitarianism.

John Stewart Mill a student of Bentham is a philosopher from the 1800’s, who loved to be on the levels of political philosophy. Growing up he was hugely influenced by Jeremy Bentham. This influence had a great turn in his life, as he began to focus and study the theory called “Utiltranisim”. In 1863, Mill wrote a book called Utilitarianism. In this book Mill showed different ideas and different things that he did not agree with his god father’s theory of utilitarianism and really revolutionized the ways the theory should be really used. Mill definition of Utiltranisim is “The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” (John Stewart Mill, Utiltranisim, pg 10). (This means that decisions in life, and in morality, should be based on what would result in the greatest amount of good, or happiness, for the greatest amount of people). So, when someone makes decision to think about just their own happiness, they should rather think about how to morally make a decision that will make most of the people happy. The concept is not to think about yourself and what makes you happy, but think about as a whole and what makes the society happy t0ogether, when making a decision that can lead to a consequence.

What is true happiness? Happiness is the ultimate end for every human being. “happiness is the sole end of human action, and the promotion of it the test by which to judge of all human conduct; from whence it necessarily follows that it must...

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