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An Investigation Into The Use Of Cooperative Learning Strategies To Foster Positive Social Behaviour And Satisfactory Academic Performance In Physical Education Among A Group Of Grade Nine Students. Literature Review

1215 words - 5 pages

Literature Review

Literature Review

In the Elementary School Journal, 1987, Volume 88, no. 1 pp 21-22, Cooperative Learning is referred to as a " set of instructional methods in which students are encouraged or required to work together in heterogeneous groups on a given tasks." Cooperative learning methods may be simple as having students sit together to discuss or help each other with classroom tasks. Students placed in mixed ability groups will be able to learn from each other by sharing ideas and if one student does not understand something another student would explain it to him/ her. Of critical importance are the stronger students assisting the weaker ones, thus encouraging peer teaching and a sense of unity and cohesiveness. Cooperative learning through its effective use can provide students with high quality corrective assistance through their peers immediately following any formative assessment. Research evidence indicates that team members who provide assistance through peer tutoring benefit as much or more than those receiving help. Peer tutoring is encouraged as it teaches peers to interact positively by assisting each other.

Cooperative learning has become popular for many who accept the view that students construct meaning through interaction with others and therefore is a powerful and effective tool in the teaching learning process of Physical Education. Cooperative Learning is among the educational theories and accompanying strategies that have captured that attention of modern educators. It is an integral part of numerous school improvement programme. This strategy can be used effectively by teachers in a variety of classroom contexts in many different types of schools. Cooperative Learning allows for mastery learning and offers practical solutions too many pressing classroom problems for example poor social behaviour. The attitudes that a person has about other people can be a powerful influence in social situations. A social attitude is relatively enduring system of feelings, beliefs. And behaviours with respect to a social object. If a student therefore has ill feeling about another student it is more than likely that he/she will display some form of negativism, possibly verbally or physically. These behaviour must be discouraged through the effective use of cooperative learning that seeks to encourage students to work together in unison and eliminate undesirable social behaviours.

Attitudes may be formed or altered through the process of associative learning (Staats and Staats 1958). Our responsiveness to other human beings is perhaps the most obvious aspects of human experience. Learning together in teams provides an important incentive that motivates students to learn and develop social training skills to compete with the society and the world at large.

Positive interdependence, individual accountability, face-to- face positive interaction, social and communicative skills and group...

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