3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Following the review cited above, it is apparent that risk management cycle (hazard identification, risk assessment for prioritizing the need for response, decision for actions according to available resources, measures implementation, monitoring, feedback and identification of new hazards) dominates every business activity and consequently comprises the process that drives the organisational management and operations. From a wider viewpoint, Risk Management comprises the inevitable and inextricable process that drives any human action lying from personal choices, to the family, team, social, workplace etc. levels and extending to the highest levels of decision making (e.g. States, Alliances etc.); Every initiative, project, plan and in general every human activity targets to manage the related-perceived risks, which source either from the weaknesses (internal adverse conditions and deficiencies) or from the threats (external factors and hazards).
Under this concept any process scoping to positive changes either in the management level (e.g. the allocation of financial resources, the recruiting policy, the marketing of products and services etc.), or in the production level (e.g. the productivity, the manpower management, the shifts scheduling, the equipment maintenance etc.), or in the quality performance (final product technical characteristics, meet of customer needs etc.), or in the occupational health and safety / environment areas (elimination of work environment hazards, staff resting periods, waste management, accident prevention and investigation etc.) falls in the specific cycle. All the improvement factors that referred above and cited in Hoyle (2007) may be named either hazard sources or hazard mitigation areas; what today is called as an improvement, actually comprises the area of dangers indicated through experience and appropriately managed.
Also, from a broader view, it seems that most of the hazards in the organisational context require assessment and mitigation through the coordination of many management areas; e.g. the inconvenient working environment may gradually cause loss of quality and production due to employees’ dissatisfaction, and consequently may bring loss of share in the market due to delivery delays and poor product quality.
The fundamental quality PDCA cycle (Plan-Do-Check-Act) concerned, it may comprise the driver for an effective and operational organisational structure since quality principles as discussed above may apply to every organisational activity. More particularly:
• In order to ensure that the “Act” stage that follows the assessment stage “Check” will comply with the organisational policies and will not provoke negative side effects due to lack of the big picture, an additional “Plan” stage between “Check” and “Act” is considered essential. Therefore, the complete cycle on the scope of more effective organisational management would be: “Plan-Do-Check-Plan-Act”.