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Certificate IV in Tertiary Preparation
There are many reasons for different viewpoints on whether or not Type 2 diabetes have a significantly high prevalence in Indigenous and Torres strait populations. There many consequential reasons which include hereditary, social disadvantage and sedentary lifestyle. The burden of type 2 diabetes represents a massive challenge to be addressed by the government in direct consultation with Indigenous communities. Indigenous Australians have a significant lower standard of health compared to non-Indigenous Australians. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated Indigenous life expectancy for 2005-07 to be 67.2 years for males (11.5 years lower than for non-Indigenous males), and 72.9 years for females (9.7 years lower than for non-Indigenous females). Apart from genetics and the heredity role of Diabetes. Diabetes is responsible for 12% of the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (Vos et al. 2007). Diabetes rates are higher among Indigenous Australians than non-Indigenous Australians in every socioeconomic status group (Cunningham 2010). With increasing and prevalent urbanisation and the adoption of more sedentary lifestyles, there has a significant surge reaching to epidemic proportions affecting the Indigenous population1.
"Life chances differ greatly depending on where people are born and raised?Within countries, the differences in life chances are also great. The poorest people have high levels of illness and premature mortality - but poor health is not confined to those who are worst off. At all levels of income, health and illness follow a social gradient: the lower the socio-economic position, the worse the health1".
The World Health Organisation defines diabetes by the level of hyperglycaemia. The main diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus are a fasting plasma glucose ?7mmol/L or 2-hour plasma glucose ?11.1mmol/L following a glucose tolerance test3. This threshold describes a population with relative insulin resistance resulting from failure of pancreatic islet b-cells to compensate for hyperglycaemia. Due to hyperglycaemia the complications of diabetes include cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, limb amputations, mental health problems, reduced quality of life and premature death (AIHW 2008a).
However, Diabetes is a key contributor to an increasing health burden of chronic diseases, the most common being Diabetes Type 2, which accounted for 85% of all diabetes in Australia in 2011?12 (ABS 2012a). Type 2 diabetes is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It is more common in people who are physically inactive, have a poor diet, and are overweight or obese (AIHW 2008a).
Footnote(1):?(a) Persons aged 25 years and over. (b) Non-Indigenous esitmate has a RSE of 26.7 percent and should be used with caution.