Cloning is a DNA sequence, such as a gene, that is transferred from one organism to another and replicated by genetic engineering techniques. This means to reproduce or propagate asexually and some sexually. Cloning is made when you have several embryos and you try to duplicate them to produce more eggs which is called SCNT. SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) is used so that they can take a piece of DNA from an egg and transfer it to another egg after the nucleus has been eliminated by an ultra violet beam. This technique is really hard to accomplish but can be done by well experienced scientists. There are many reasons why scientist would like to clone, and two of the main reasons are finding a cure to certain types of diseases and helping the endangered species come back to life like they once were.
Different Types of Cloning
When we speak of cloning, we typically think of organism cloning, but there are actually three different types of cloning. Molecular, Organism, and Therapeutic cloning. The first one is Molecular cloning, this focuses on when a DNA from an organism is transferred to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. In other words, a small piece of the DNA strand is removed and united with a plasmid which reproduces itself to create multiple copies of the same DNA code. This type of cloning is also called gene cloning. The second one is Organism cloning, and this involves making an identical copy of an entire organism and a good example would be Dolly the sheep. This type of cloning is also called reproductive cloning. The last one is Therapeutic cloning. This involves the cloning of human embryos for the production of stem cells. The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to extract the stem cells from the embryos and study them. When the egg has been cloned and divided for 5 days, the stem cells are extracted from it. The embryos are destroyed due to the extraction process, which raises ethical concerns.
Humans Are Not the Only Ones Who Can Clone
There are many other things on this planet that can clone themselves other than humans doing it. We have some cloning themselves right now as we speak and that is our cells. “Most cells, whether living as individuals or as a part of a larger organism, reproduce by cloning themselves” (Panno 1). Some others include sea cucumbers, sea stars, planarian, and even terrestrial vertebrates. Most of these animals need at least half of their body in order to produce a clone of themselves. Unlike the rest of the vertebrates the sea star is the best one to clone itself because it can make another clone with just one arm. It has become a crucial part of their survival strategy to not become extinct. This life style that vertebrates go through is amazing because they have the ability to produce another one of themselves which will least likely send them to extinction. One of the ways that Humans clone is by making twins. When people disagree on the topic about human cloning...