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Analyse The Potential Applications Of Solid Waste As An Aggregate In Structural Concrete

6654 words - 27 pages

Table of FiguresTable 1- Materials Studied 2 Table 2: Waste Materials Types and Remarks 25 Table 3: Traditional Materials and waste material 26 Table 3: Traditional aggregate versus Waste material aggregate 27 Table 4: Highest compression strength, Tensile Strength and Density 28

1.0 IntroductionConcrete is the single most widely used material in the world it contributes 5% of the annual anthropogenic CO2 production (1). Most of the CO2 production comes as a result of producing cement. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 250 million tons of waste was produced in 2011 (2). Aggregates comprise about 60% to 75% of the total volume of concrete (3). In 2011 the US Geological Survey estimated 1.16 billion metric tons of crush stone was produced in the United States, 80% of all the aggregate produced most was used in highway construction and road construction and maintenance as well as residential construction and sewers (4). The US Geological Survey also estimates that 810 million metric tons of gravel and stone was produced in 2011 for construction purposes (5). These factors have resulted in studies being conducted on the use of alternate materials derived from waste in concrete production. This study will analyse the potential applications of solid waste as aggregate in structural concrete by:Defining structural concrete and solid waste.Describing the waste materials to be studied (Table 1)Reviewing research conducted on use the waste material studied as an aggregate in concrete production.Reviewing the research conducted to determine their limitations of waste materials as concreteCompare and contrast the limitations and compressive strengths of using the waste materials studied
Traditional Materials

Waste Materials

Crushed Rock (Coarse aggregate)
Gravel (Coarse aggregate)
Sand (Fine aggregate)

Polystyrene (Coarse aggregate)
Brick (Coarse and Fine aggregate)
Recycled Concrete (Coarse aggregate)
Sawdust (Fine aggregate)
Glass (Fine aggregate)
Plastic (Fine aggregate)

Table 1- Materials Studied1.1 Definitions1.1.1 Solid WasteSolid waste is any discarded material resulting from community, household, industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural activities. Solid waste can either be a solid, semisolid, or liquid.1.1.2 Structural ConcreteConcrete is a material produced by mixing a binder, water, and aggregate. The binder undergoes hydration which "glues" the aggregate together to produce concrete. Structural concrete is concrete of a specific quality that is capable of carrying a structural load or forming an integral part of a structure (6). For the purposes of this study, the compressive strength of structural concrete will range from 20 MPa (3000 psi) for residential purposes and 34 MPa (5000 psi) and higher for commercial structures. Other mechanical factors such as soundness, freeze/thaw, durability and porosity weren't considered as a part of this study.2.0 Waste Materials2.1...

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