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Analysis And Description Of Some Elements Of The Periodic Table

2460 words - 10 pages

The periodic table tells you many things about an element. Essentially it is used as a section divider to elements, each put under a specific row and column to its properties. This includes its mass, number of protons, neutrons and electrons, period, group, valence electrons...
Chlorine is a diatomic molecule of Cl2. There are also 24 isotopes of chlorine, 2 of which are stable isotopes. Chlorine 35 and 37 are both stable isotopes of chlorine. The appearance of chlorine is a highly toxic green/yellow gas a room temperature with a pungent odour.
This shows an electronic structure of 2,8,7. chlorine has 3 shells (period 3) and 7 valence electrons (group 7). Group 7 are known as halogens. Since chlorine has 7 outer electrons and is a non metal, it can form ionic and single covalent bonds. Ionic bonds can be formed as the metal looses an electron and chlorine gains it completing its outer shell. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing the seventh electron, for example hydrogen plus chlorine equals hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid (aqueous). This is where the outer shell of both hydrogen and chlorine is completed by sharing one outer electron.
Chlorine symbolised as Cl, is found in group 7, period 3 on the periodic table. It is gas at room temperature with a melting point of-101.5 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of -34.04 degrees Celsius It has an atomic number of 17 and a relative mass of 35.5 depending on the isotope. It also has a density of 3.21 x 10-3g.cm-3 at 20oC. This information allows us to calculate the number of neutrons and electrons and therefore its electronic configuration:
Chlorine symbolised as Cl, is found in group 7, period 3 on the periodic table. It is gas at room temperature with a melting point of-101.5 degrees Celsius and a boiling point of -34.04 degrees Celsius It has an atomic number of 17 and a relative mass of 35.5 depending on the isotope. It also has a density of 3.21 x 10-3g.cm-3 at 20oC. This information allows us to calculate the number of neutrons and electrons and therefore its electronic configuration:
Health and safety:
Highly toxic gas.
Exposure causes irritation to nose, eyes and throat.
Breathing this gas can aggravate existing respiratory diseases like asthma.
Chlorine gas is so toxic it has been used as chemical weapons previously.
Hydrochloric acid causes irritation and reacts violently

The most common chlorine compounds are sodium chloride (NaCl) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). Sodium chloride is used as table salt and in some industrial processes. Hydrogen chloride mixed with water (H2O), forms hydrochloric acid, a strong and commercially important acid. Other chlorine compounds include: chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride (LiCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2). Chlorine gas is industrially made from sodium chloride. It can be used to sterilise water and disinfect swimming pools. This is because chlorine can kill...

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