Research Methods In Psychology. Essay

1927 words - 8 pages

Research Methodology.Research involves two steps: Generating scientific hypothesis & testing hypohtesis.Generating Hypothesis:Hypothesis: a statement that can be tested - about the topic of interestEg: Adolescents tend to be more moodier than children or adultsHow to generate hypothesis: by general observationIt also helps to be very familiar with the relevant scientific literatureResearch Methodology:Literature: previously published books and articles about the topic of interestOften the most imp source of SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES, is SCIENTIFIC THEORY - an interrelated set of propositions about a particular phenomenonExample of hypothesisHypothesis: sexual orientation may depend on GENETIC PREDISPOSITION toward heterosexuality or homosexualityThis leads to testable scientific hypothesis that Pairs of Identical twins who have identical genes- should be more likely to have same sexual orientation than pairs of Fraternal twins, who share only about HALF their genesA competing theory emphasizes CHILDHOOD EVENTS as the source of individual's sexual orientation.........and generate a competing set of hypotheses that can also be testedCompeting hypothesis is important to advance our scientific knowledgeScientific methodsScientific means "the research METHOD used to collect the data are:* Unbiased (do not favor one hypothesis over another)* Reliable (other qualified people can repeat the observation and obtain the same result).We discuss two methods Quantitative and Qualitative.Experiments.Most powerful scientific method:They provide the strongest tests of hypotheses about CAUSE & EFFECTSThe investigator carefully CONTROLS conditions - often in a laboratory - and takes MEASUREMENTS in order to discover CASUAL RELATIONSHIPS among VARIABLESFor Eg: the hypothesis is that individuals perform better on a math performance if they are offered more money for good performanceThe experimenter might randomly assign participants to one of the three conditions: Group A: $10, Group B:$5 Group C: $0The experimenter then measures and compares the performance of all the three groups to see if in fact, MORE MONEY (hypothesized cause) PRODUCES BETTER PERFORMANCE (the hypothesized effect)Here, the amount of money is the INDEPENDENT variable because it is the variable that is Independent of what the participants doThe Independent Variable is UNDER THE COMPLETE CONTROL of the experimenter who CREATES it and CONTROLS its variation.In an experiment the Independent Variable represents the HYPOTHESIZED CAUSEThe HYPOTHESIZED EFFECT is the Dependant Variable because it is HYPOTHESIZED to depend on the value of the Independent VariableIn this experiment: Dependent variable is the performance of math.The experimenter MANIPULATES the Independent Variable and observe the Dependent Variable to learn the Outcome of the Experiments.The Dependent Variable is almost always some measure of the PARTICIPANTS' BEHAVIORInstead of saying this depends on that, we say "IN FUNCTION OF"We say...

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