Analysis Of Political Situatio

1485 words - 6 pages

The US embassy in Iran was taken by storm on November 4, 1979 when Iranian militants seized and took sixty-six American members hostage. This hostile event stemmed from Iran's demand that the US return their deposed Shah. The US immediately engaged in economic sanctioning tactics to ensure the safe return of the hostages. Although authors like Renwick deem such methods as ineffective, Baldwin's argument assesses the situation and demonstrates how economic statecraft positioned the US so that the hostages were returned home safely, and American resolve was kept firm.By the14th of November, economic sanctions against Iran included: cutting off exports of military spare parts and imports of Iranian oil, and freezing over 12 billion dollars of Iranian assets. Baldwin begins his analysis by stating US primary objectives with regard to economic statecraft. The first was to demonstrate US resolve to resist blackmail, while the second aimed for a quick and safe return home for the hostages. Although policy makers disagreed on the order of precedence, most authors assume the later to have more importance. Baldwin also highlights the intended effects because he feels these have relevance in understanding the goal of the sender state. Getting Iran's attention to recognize the seriousness behind US actions seemed prevalent to policy makers: "this crisis calls for firmness and it calls or restraint. I thought depriving them of 12 billion in assets was a good way to get their attention" (Baldwin, 252). Economic sanction against Iran intended to send a message: the US would not stand for Iran's behavior, but wanted a safe and peaceful resolution.Baldwin introduces secondary goals by the US. These goals are crucial in understanding the long term effects desired when imposing economic sanctions. The immediate goals, Baldwin believes, cannot be achieved unless secondary goals are put in place. Imposing economic costs and depriving Iran of certain policy options would make the Iranian government recognize the situation and reduce their options in backlashing towards the US. Baldwin states, "both acts of boycotting Iranian oil and freezing assets were preemptive moves designed in part to head off Iranian attempt to cut off oil and with draw assets," (Baldwin, 252). Some officials, such as Rob Carswell Treasury official, believed that these secondary goals were just as important as primary objectives because they looked out for the US dollar and property aims of US citizen. Although Carter and Breznki pay little attention to that notion.Third party influence must be when assessing the effectiveness of the sanctions. In terms of the primary objective of displaying firmness and resolve to Iran, it was also very important that it show the rest of the world, and especially third world countries and the middle east, that the US would not back off. Portraying firmness to allies and/or enemies maintained and strengthened US credibility. Second, the US needed to strengthen...

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