Analysis Of Pain Using Conceptual Models By Keena Rossyion

3096 words - 12 pages

Pain is a significant national health problem which is the most common reason people seek out medical care. Poorly treated pain is a major concern for the million of Americans currently suffering with pain. Pain management has become the focus of several regulatory organizations. The American Pain Society created the phrase "Pain, the Fifth Vital Sign," and promoted the need for increased awareness of pain management among healthcare providers (Lafleur, 2004). Pulse, blood pressure, core temperature, and respiration were once the basic vital signs now pain has been added. Measuring and treating pain is part of providing quality care. According to the American Pain Society, 50 million people suffer from intractable pain (Clark, 2003). CNN reported that the total nationwide cost of pain related lost productivity was estimated $61.2 billion annually (Associated Press, 2003). Persistent pain can lead to more serious problems. Pain can, directly or indirectly, suppress immune mechanisms that defend the body (Davidhizar and Bartlett, 2000). The failure to treat pain adequately constitutes one of the biggest problems that people face today. The medical community is viewed as having limited success in helping patients deal with pain (Hart, 2003).Pain is a personal experience that is unique to each individual experiencing it. The patient, not the clinician, is the authority on their pain and self-report is the most reliable indicator of pain (JCAHO, 2001). Due to the subjectivity, the concept of pain can be hard to communicate and describe. There is a lack of consistency in not only how patients perceive and communicate pain, but also how providers assess and treat pain. Some providers do not even make pain a priority in their delivery of care. However, it is not a concept that can be ignored. There are medications and treatments available. In recent years pain management has become an important clinical concern for nursing professionals.The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) has developed pain management quality standards that must be implemented by all health care organizations to be accredited. There are seven standards, endorsed by the American Pain Society, created by JCAHO in 1999. These standards were implemented beginning in the 2001 accreditation cycle and health care has had to incorporate the pain standards into policy and practice.Conceptual models developed by nursing theorists can be useful tools to guide clinical practice. These models broadly explain a phenomenon of interest from the author's philosophical point of view. They provide a frame of reference, a rationale for activities, and a systematic structure for practice (Torakis & Smigielski, 2002). Models define nursing and provide a consistent and efficient way to communication within the profession. Orem's Self-Care Framework, Neuman's System Model, and Roy's Adaptation Model are examples of conceptual models that can be used to explore possible...

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