According to the Election Commission (EC) of Malaysia (“Process of election”, n.d.), there are six steps for the Electoral process in Malaysia. It consists of the issuance of the writ, nomination of candidates, election campaign, polling, counting of votes and announcement of results.
Firstly, a writ to the Returning Officers (RO) will be issued by the Election Committee under the Elections Act 1958 (“The election process - 13th Malaysian”, 2013) after the dissolution of the Parliament or a State Legislative Assembly or in the event of a casual vacancy (“Process of election”, n.d.). The RO can then conduct the elections. A notice of election will be announced and posted in public places for citizens to view. The notices will include some information such as the date of nomination and the polling date (“Process of election”, n.d.). There will be an advanced voting date for those who are absent on the exact polling date (“Process of election”, n.d.).
Next, during the process of nomination the candidates, proposer or seconder will submit the nomination forms to the RO between 9 a.m. to 10a.m. on nomination day (“Process of election”, n.d.). The nomination forms must be accompanied by a statutory declaration along with a deposit of RM10, 000 to contest for a parliamentary seat and RM5, 000 for a state seat by the candidates (“The election process - 13th Malaysian”, 2013). The Assistant Returning Officers will assist the RO to ensure that the candidates are eligible to stand for the elections. The candidates are disqualified if they are of unsound mind, relinquished their citizenship, failed to lodge any return of election expenses, holds an “office of profit”, convicted of an offense by a court of law in Malaysia with a jail term of no less than 1 year or a fine no less than RM 2000, and has un-discharged bankrupt. The returning officer has to announce the names of candidates and their parties contesting the Parliamentary and State constituencies election after the necessary checking. The returning Officer will announce the election’s winner without contest if only one candidate is qualified to stand for election in a constituency.
The third step in the general election is the election campaign. The campaigning period begins immediately as the eligible candidates on nomination day are announced. The campaign period has to end at midnight before the polling day starts. They can promote their campaign by affixing of posters, talks, distribution of pamphlets, and campaigning from house to house. According to the Election Offences Act 1954 candidates cannot spend more than RM 200,000 and RM 100,000 in total campaign expenditure for Parliamentary and State seats respectively (“The election process - 13th Malaysian”, 2013). At this point candidates must also pay a campaign material deposit of RM 5000 for Parliamentary seats and RM 3000 for State seats (“Process of election”, n.d.). If the campaign materials are cleared within 14 days of polling, the...