4. Land rights in the original locality and new settlement
International best practice dictates that a resettlement project should address adverse impacts by replacing lost assets with similar/ equal value or higher value or better characteristics. Displaced persons should be assisted in their efforts to improve their livelihoods and standards of living or at least to restore them, in real terms, to pre-displacement levels or to levels prevailing prior to the beginning of project implementation, whichever is higher (MANUAL, 2001)
The Extension of security of tenure Act 62 of 1997 (the 1997 Act) which facilitates long term tenure of land and regulates conditions of residence and conditions ...view middle of the document...
5. Original Land
The seven household currently residing in Makobakoba Village, which is in Ward 3 of the Greater Tubatse Municipality and under the Mashaba Traditional Authority . The Makobakoba chief is Chief Mashabela and their Ward Councillor is Councillor Mashabela. The seven households do not have a headman . Through traditional and family practice, the household head is typically the most senior male member of the household. In some cases the rightful owner’s interest may be held in cooperation, by the household head and his/her spouse, or with the extended family. Six of the seven households owe allegiance to Kgoshi Mashabela. All household have access to some agricultural land. Their compounds are within the grazing lands or within a walk-able (maximum 5 km) distance. Maize and millet is their main crop being farmed. On average, the size of plots is 3500m² for each household each.
The plots, when cropped, are used to grow produce that is consumed by the household. The land is not used for commercial purposes and only surplus produce may be sold, which is not often. Trees at the homestead sites can mostly be classified as exotic e.g. DelonixRegia (Flamboyant), Lucana, SeringaNelia, Pepper Schinus, Prosapis, or Oleander. They are used for shade, or wood as an energy source. Three types of fruit trees were mentioned; marula, mulberry and pawpaw. Some trees are on cropped land
Two household have graves moved from the village by the mine through extensive consultation with the families concerned. Both graves where moved to another family member who resides in another village. One household has a child’s grave buried under a room of a homestead, and one has scattered sand for the ancestors in a sacred area in the back yard.
The homes are generally consisting of 6 to 12 room including bedrooms, lounge, kitchen, and dining room. All use a pit latrine, although one is broken. All households except one have a livestock enclosure as part of the homestead, either for goats, cattle and/or chickens.
The seven families have access to variety of social services such as water, electricity, school and health facilities. All households have access to water via a communal tap less than 200m away. The communal tap was installed and is maintained by the municipality. However, this breaks regularly and the nearest tap source of water is then at Sefaro village. Two households have rainy water tanks (Jojos). One household has a borehole. Interms of electricity, all household have access to electricity supplied by the municipality through prepaid vouchers Paraffin, wood and gas is sometimes used for cooking. Firewood is used for heating. Wood is sourced locally in the fields and bushes around the area. Waste is either burned or buried. Although the Makobakoba village doesn’t have a school or a health facility of its own, its location is central to all these facilities, the access road from the main road is less than two kilometres (Synergy, 2013).