This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Analyzing Perceptual Stimuli Essay

1579 words - 6 pages

Perceiving visual, auditory, or chemical sensations is the first step to sorting objects, events, or situations into categories. Seger and Miller (2010) discuss the importance of contrasting brain regions for this initial task. Specifically for processing visual sensations, early phases of category learning are dependent upon regions in the visual system for perceiving information and discerning between noteworthy characteristics. An area of the visual system believed to be important for analyzing perceptual stimuli is the Inferior Temporal Cortex (ITC) (Seger & Miller, 2010). It has been found to facilitate categorization by recognizing unique features of objects and responding according to perceptual differences between categories (DeGutis & D’Esposito 2007).
Beyond initial perceptual learning, categorization also involves the parietal and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in order to successively learn and predict behavior and movement sequences. To illustrate the PFC involvement in categorization, Shima, Isoda, Mushiake, and Tanji (2007) measured prefrontal cell activity in monkeys learning to categorize different patterns of movement. They reported that prefrontal cells were activated when categorizing the sequences of learned behaviors. The cells increased in activity for executing and planning the motor responses within the patterns, but were mainly responsive for, and could accurately predict, the category associated with the sequence.
An area that is thought to be important for storing learned categories is the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe (MTL) (Seger & Miller, 2010).
Research has begun to focus on how each of the brain regions works together to learn, store, and retrieve categorical information (Ashby and Maddox, 2010). One major component in coordinating the contrasting brain regions appears to be the basal ganglia. Basal ganglia project to and receive input from several cortical areas, process the information, and provide feedback through the thalamus to the originating cortical areas. This output has been shown to guide behaviors and strengthen synaptic activity (Shohamy, Meyers, & Gluck, 2008). Research has been devoted to identifying the different circuits and mapping their exact pathways. Alexander, DeLong, and Strick (1986) proposed the presence of at least five circuits created from input and output from the basal ganglia. More recently, it has been posited that the circuits may be interconnected and, therefore, identifying separate pathways extensively is not necessary. To this point, Seger and Miller (2010) describe four feedback loops, which project information to and from several cortical regions. These loops are the visual loop, executive loop, motivational loop, and the motor loop. The brain has been shown to recruit the different circuits depending on the activity being formed. Activation within the circuits has further been found to shift depending on the demands of the present task (cite?).

The visual...

Find Another Essay On Analyzing Perceptual Stimuli

Various training methods affect different parts of working memory

1905 words - 8 pages to automatic cognition and emotional interpretations of sensory and perceptual stimuli (Bishop et al., 2004). Training in meditation enhances attention, which is interconnected to working memory ( Moss et al). Several studies show the enhancement of attention and working memory after meditation training. In one study, novice meditators performed better on sustained attention measures after undergoing a short period of meditation training

Adolescent Learning Disabilities (LD) Evaluation Essay

6768 words - 27 pages history of significant difficulty with math courses. A special education evaluation in the 1st grade identified processing delays in the nonverbal domain, including visual-motor integration, visual-processing speed, and visual-perceptual skills. Academic delays in the areas of reading, math and writing were remediated by the 3rd grade and, although eligible for educational accommodations and modifications through Section 504, Ron has

An Examination into the Potential Brain-Enhancing and Educational Potential of Electronic Media on Children on the Autisim Spectrum

3061 words - 13 pages the children spanning both groups were between the ages of 2 and 5. Each group was exposed to the same series of photographs in which the attention to certain areas of interest (AOIs) were examined with respect to photographs that primarily focused on how the faces were analyzed by the ASD and TD children. The research begins by emphasizing a few significant features of ASD children based on fMRI procedures as follows: The Enhanced Perceptual

Neuro-Linguistic Programming

4550 words - 18 pages individual sees the negotiation. Their Shoes (2nd Position) This perceptual position is from the perspective of your negotiating partner. The conceptual image is that of “putting yourself in another person’ shoes”. By doing this one is better able to see the negotiation from the other person’s perspective. Observer (3rd Position) This perceptual position is that of an independent third party. This is the position best used when analyzing and

The importance of building a connection with your customers

3287 words - 13 pages hold true. High-volume customers often know their value to a company and can leverage it to extract premium service and/or price discounts, so that it may not cost the firm less to serve them. Loyal customers may expect and demand more and resent any attempt to charge full prices. Analyzing Consumer Markets Adopting a holistic marketing orientation means understanding customers - gaining a 360- degree view of both their daily lives and the changes

A Report on Business Applications of the Focused Topics Covered by the Course Introduction to Psychology

6909 words - 28 pages characteristics of stimuli, whereas top-down processing allows us to bring about our experience to bear on perception. 5.7 Perceptual constancy and Depth perception: Perceptual constancy is a phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent, despite changes.Depth perception the ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance-28It teaches us about new dimensions of business. 5.8 Visual Illusions: Visual

Dreams - physical and metaphysical aspect

3751 words - 15 pages , acquaintances, or family members and the rest may be people you don't recognize. Dreams are usually selfish or centered on oneself about 90% of the time. "Dreams are more perceptual than conceptual which means things are seen and heard rather than thought" (Encarta 2000). Many of us have encountered situations in which external stimuli such as sound or movement are sensed and are incorporated into one's dream. This is called Stimulus Incorporation. For

product placement

6342 words - 25 pages moviegoers in the United States, and the world number was twice as large. This creates a huge opportunity for corporations to expose a large number of consumers to their product. The opportunity in product placement lies in its ability to generate brand awareness outside of the saturated traditional marketing system. This factor has become increasingly important throughout the last decade, as consumers began to suffer from perceptual overloading

Consumer Socialization: Children as Future Consumers

4540 words - 18 pages they are able to have symbolic thoughts and respond to properties of stimuli that are perceptual. In the stage of concrete operational, which happens at the age of seven until the age of eleven, children can combine several observable aspects of objects and relate them to each other. The last period is formal operational stage (eleven years old through adulthood). In this stage, people are capable of making more complex combinations on not only

Motivation

9397 words - 38 pages development, emotion, explanatory style, or personality or are concepts unique to motivation more pertinent.For example, we know that people respond to increasingly complex or novel events (or stimuli) in the environment up to a point and then responses decrease. This inverted-U-shaped curve of behavior is well-known and widely acknowledged (e.g., Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). However, the major issue is one of explaining this phenomenon. Is this a

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

Similar Essays

The Principal Approach To Perception Of Self And Others & What Can Assist Someone To Be A Qualified Manager

1650 words - 7 pages and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful picture of the world' (Arnold, 1995, P.263)The general perceptual process can be divided into 3 stages.'First of all, the first stage in the process of perception is selection and attention.' (Mullins, 1999, P.378).The person will process information and receive the stimuli from the environment such as sight, sound, smell, taste etc. But each person has his physical limits. It is impossible for an

Sensation. Perception, And Attention Essay

1704 words - 7 pages a cocktail party phenomenon is. The cocktail party phenomenon pertains to a person's ability to listen to one conversation while several conversations or background noises are present. It is believed that a person can perform this function because of the human speech characteristics such as auditory system, or high levels perceptual and language processing (Arons, Barry. N/A). Of course, this ability is divided, some of the team members indicate

Psychological Tests Essay

2527 words - 10 pages breeding of gifted individuals. Between 1884 and 1890 Galton operated a laboratory at the South Kensington Museum in London (now the Victoria and Albert Museum) where, for a small fee, people could have themselves measured on a number of physical and psychological attributes. He tried to relate intellectual ability to skills such as reaction time, sensitivity to physical stimuli, and body proportions. For example, he measured the highest and lowest

Gender Influences Performance On Choice Reaction Time Task

1368 words - 5 pages spatial features reaction tasks. Another possible alternative explanation for gender differences on reaction tasks is males and females brains differences. fMRI brain scans show that there is a higher bilateral symmetry in female brain and a higher asymmetry in male brains (Kalb et al., 2004). These brain differences can have an impact on incoming stimuli though the dorsal and the ventral stream cortical. The “dorsal stream provides the basis