Anatomy Essay

653 words - 3 pages

Sept. 2Integumentary SystemIntegumentary systemSkinSkin derivativesSweat glands, oil glands, hairs, nailsSkin has 2 layers: dermis and epidermisBelow dermis is hypodermis (subcutaneous fat tissue sometimes considered part of skin but is not)Skin functionProtects deeper tissue from:1. Mechanical damage2. Chemical damage3. Bacterial damage4. Thermal damage5. Ultraviolet damage6. Desiccation (drying out)Aids in heat regulationAids in excretion of urea and uric acidSynthesis of vitamin DSkin structureEpidermis -outer layerOften keratinized (hardened by keratin)Dermis- dense connective tissueHypodermis- not part of skinAnchors skin to underlying organsComposed mostly of adipose tissueEpidermis4 principle cell typesKeratinocytes (keratin)90% or epidermal cellsHelp protect skin and underlying tissue from heat, microbes, and chemicalsProduce lamellar granulesRelease a H2O repellant sealantMelanocytes (melanin)Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytesColor is yellow to brown to blackMelanocytes are mostly in stratum basalAmount of melanin produced depends upon genetic and exposure to sunlightLangerhans cellsArise from red bone marrowMigrate to epidermisMerkel cellsLocated in deepest layer of epidermis (stratum basal)Detect certain aspects of touchComposed of 4 or 5 layers depending on location in the bodyPalms and soles of feet have 5 layers because exposed most to frictionAll other areas have 4 layersLayers of the epidermis: (superficial deep)1. Stratum Corneum25-30 layers of scale-like cellsShed as flakesTrue skin protectorCallus (abnormal thickening of epidermis) -constant exposure to friction causes this layer to increase in depth2. Stratum LucidumThis is the extra layer in thick skinProtects against friction3. Stratum Granulosum3-4 rows of flattened cellsformation of H2O sealant between cellsSlow loss of bodily fluids and entry of foreign objects4. Stratum SpinosumProvides strength and flexibilitySpiny appearance due to changed shape of keratinocytes5. Stratum Basaledeepest layer of epidermisSingle layer of cells in contact with dermis6-8 weeks for cells to reach surface of skinKeratinocytesDermis2 layers:1. Papillary layer (1/5)Projections called dermal papillaePain receptorsCapillary loopsSentence form table 5.2: houses dermal papillae that house capillaries, corpuscles of touch, and free nerve endings2. Reticular layer (4/5)Blood VesselsGlandsNerve receptors5.2 sentence: Has dense irregular connective tissue with collagen and coarse elastic fibers. The spaces between fibers have adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves,...

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