Starting about 8,000BC, all of Northern Africa became a drier, more desert-like
place. Back then, man lived in nomadic groups of hunters and gatherer. The
climate forced man to migrate to more hospitable lands, some migrated to Nile
River Valley which is a vast land surrounding the Nile River. There in this
land abundant with life, there were plenty of food and water for these people.
During the Neolithic Revolution (10,000BC to 3,500BC) man discovered the art of
agriculture, this skill arrived in Egypt approximately 7,000BC. Humans were
finally able to use the rich silt brought by the yearly flooding of the Nile
River which annually flooded since 60,000 years ago.
The Nile River is the world's longest river , it is approximately 4,160 miles
long and flows from the highlands in Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.
It is the main reason why the Ancient Egyptians were such a successful people,
the moisture from the river was the only thing keeping Egypt from change to a
desert. Even back then, everybody knew that without the river they had no
chance of survival. First of all the main food the Egyptians ate were bread
made from the grain grown with the precious silt and water from the Nile River.
Barges and boats made with papyrus reeds or wooden planks(used after 3,000BC)
were filled with different thing such as grains were floated downstream and
carried by the current, or if they needed to be floated upstream, you would
simply just raise the sails up and the ship would sail upstream, the Egyptians
invented sails at approximately 3,200BC. Although the Nile is such an abundant
source of life, it fertilize just a narrow strip of land, eventually the
Egyptians built large irrigation systems which would carry water into the desert.
Ancient cultures were often plagued with warfare and attacks from other cultures,
Egypt's geography protected it from most of its neighbors. The Mediterranean
Sea, the Red Sea, the Nubian Desert, and the Libyan Desert surrounded Egypt, it
was very hard for an outside to even enter Egypt. In the Nile River there are
six cataracts, waterfalls or rapids, these prevented people from a region called
Kush which would be modern day Ethiopia from using the river to travel to Egypt
and attack it. Still there were invaders who would attack Egypt, from the Sinai
Peninsula invaders attacked Egypt, but Egypt also used this land as a path to
conquer other people.
The small villages that lined the river eventually became two kingdoms, Upper
Egypt and Lower Egypt. The name of the king that eventually united the two
kingdoms is Menes, he originally ruled just Upper Egypt, but by conquering Lower
Egypt, he not only increase his own power, he created one of the greatest
civilizations ever. His successors, the king after him, wore a double crown to
symbolize that they ruled both kingdoms.
Sometime between 1,554BC and 1,304BC, people began calling their kings
"pharaohs" which means "great house"....