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Anciten Chinese Civiilizaiton: T He Rise Of The Han Dynasty

1940 words - 8 pages

The rise of the Han dynasty commenced with the suicide of the Western Chu Emperor, Xiang Yu. Following the collapse of the Qin Dynasty, China was under an interregnum; both the Han dynasty and Chu dynasty wanted complete and utter dominance of China. During this era, 18 kingdoms once known as the Qin Empire provoked numerous battles solely for the command of China (See Appendix – the 18 kingdoms). Of the more significant battles was the battle of Julu, where Xiang Yu defeated the Qin Empire; the battle of Julu marked the end of the Qin Dynasty (Zhou, 2003). Liu Bang accompanied by his advisor Zhang Liang trooped towards the Qin Capital Xian Yang; although the Liu bang’s forces were heavily weakened they managed to make their way into the Capital in 206 BCE with the Qin ruler (Ziying) surrendering himself to Liu Bang (Wu, 2003). Xiang Yu moved his forces westward towards the Capital of Xian Yang as well; Liu Bang was heavily outnumbered by the Xiang Yu’s forces and forced to retreat leaving behind both his wife and father in the capital of Xian Yang (Wu, 2003). Liu Bang and Xiang Yu were both on the conquest to invade Guanzhong; a promise by King Haui II (Emperor Yi of Chu) indicated that the first conqueror of Guanzhong could occupy that land (Wu, 2003). Although Liu Bang was the first to conquer Guanzhong, it was Xiang Yu who split the Qin Empire into 18 kingdoms amongst three former Qin generals (Wu, 2003). Xiang Yu effectively relocated the Emperor of Chu leading him into exile; the exile of Emperor Yi of Chu sparked rebellions, which Liu Bang would later use to his advantage (Wu, 2003). Now with Xiang Yu preoccupied with fighting off members of the rebellion this gave Liu Bang open window to attack the three regions of the former Qin generals; Liu Bang accompanied by the help of Zhang Liang and former Chu (Han Xin) reclaimed reign of Guanzhong (Wu, 2003).

When Xiang Yu was informed of the attack on Guanzhong he immediately ordered his army back; although Liu Bang’s army was still no match for Xiang Yu’s army he ordered Han Xin to conquer the northern provinces and many of Xiang’s old allies assembled with Liu Bang (Wu, 2003). The Situation for Xiang Yu was not promising, but he still had control over Liu bang’s family; Liu Bang proposed a generous offer to divide China between the Han and Chu in exchange for the safety return of his family. Xiang Yu had no choice but to agree to the terms but this would soon lead to his downfall; Xiang Yu was backstabbed by Liu Bang and ordered a three-pronged attack with the help of Han Xin and Peng Yue, but Peng Yue did not mobilise their troops and this lead to Liu Bang’s defeat (Wu, 2003). In 202 BCE, Liu Bang promised kingship for Han Xin and Peng Yue in return for bringing down the Chu Empire; again with their help a three-pronged attack was unleashed on Xiang Yu in Gaixia (Wu, 2003). The Battle of Giaxia leads to the rise of Liu Bang and the Western Han Dynasty; upon Xiang Yu’s suicide the...

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