With the United States of America being involved in near constant combat for much of the past decade, there have been an increasingly high number of troops returning home with not just physical injuries, but also injuries of the mind. This research article review will examine the study titled “Anger, Hostility, and Aggression Among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans Reporting PTSD and Subthreshold PTSD” conducted by Matthew Jakupcak, Daniel Conybeare, Lori Phelps, Stephen Hunt, Hollie Holms, Bradford Felker, Michele Klevens and Miles E. McFall of the Veterans Administration (VA) Puget Sound Health System, Seattle Washington. The study was published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 20, No.6, December 2007. The main concept of the research was an attempt to confirm the association between PTSD, angry and/or hostile behavior amongst combat exposed veterans (as cited in Orth, & Wieland, 2006). The study examined 117 veterans who sought help from the VA over an 13 month period and broke participants down into three categories; PTSD, Subthreshold-PTSD and non-PTSD and correlated the results (Jakupcak, Conybeare, Phelps, Hunt, Homles, Felker, Klevens & McFall, 2007, p. 947, 948).
The study hypothesized that those combat veterans who were flagged as positive for PTSD during clinical examinations post self-referral would indicate drastically increased trait anger and hostility after completing a self-assessment questionnaire as compared with those found to have Subthreshold-PTSD or those in the Non-PTSD group (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). Additionally the researchers hypothesized that the Subthreshold-PTSD group would display higher trait anger and hostility than the Non-PTSD group (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). The questionnaires and inventories asked each subject about unhealthy alcohol use, exposure to combat events, PTSD signs, and feelings or episodes of anger, aggression and hostility (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947-948).
Jakupcak et al. used a standardized protocol approved by both the University of Washington State and the VA to screen the multiple tours Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans who turned to the Washington State division of the VA during the time period of May 2004 to June 2005 (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). The subjects who participated in the study were 97% male and over 70% white, and an average age of about 33 years (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). The average number of years of education was close to 14, indicating mostly enlisted members whom completed some college at most (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). The sampling also indicated that about half the subjects were married, the other half were either single or divorced (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). Income levels suggest that 2/3 of participants are Non-Commissioned Officers or above (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947). Approximately 80% of participants are Army or Army National guardsman (Jackupcak et al, 2007, p. 947).
The methodology used...