Angiogenesis Essay

1241 words - 5 pages

Background
Angiogenesis is the process of growing blood vessels in different body organs. Sustainability of life depends on the accuracy and abundance of this process. The cornea is a living tissue that is free of blood vessels, demonstrated by its transparency for optical clarity. The avascularity of the cornea makes it a good model to study the mechanisms that promote or inhibit angiogenesis. By comparing corneal tissue with other vascular tissues, a greater understanding of angiogenesis will occur that will eventually lead to treatment of vascular diseases such as macular degeneration, tumors, or ischemic heart disease.
Angiogenesis is primarily controlled by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which interacts with tyrosine kinase receptors VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3. Growth of blood vessels occurs when the body secretes VEGF to bind to the receptors and initializes the process. The cornea expresses the soluble version of VEGFR1, which sequesters VEGF, making angiogenesis impossible. However, factors such as injury or stress remove these soluble proteins and blood vessels begin to grow as a recovery response. The ability to induce and observe corneal neovascularization is a valuable tool in studying angiogenesis. Observing the effects of VEGF receptors and other factors that interact with VEGF is crucial to the understanding of angiogenic processes; this information can later be used to treat vascular diseases.

Research Plan
The ultimate goal of this research project is to understand the specifics of VEGF and its receptors to be able to eventually prevent neovascularization. Receptors can be physically altered, which allows for more versatility in research. VEGF specifically binds to domains 2 and 3 of both VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. However, VEGFR1 (also known as Flt-1) is the most abundant of the receptors, so it will be more easily targeted and researched. This means that a total loss in vascularization is not expected, as a reduction will be more likely to occur.
Focusing on the Flt23K receptor (FLT domains 2 and 3 tagged to KDEL protein) will lead to a better understanding of this mechanism. Flt23K is able to bind and sequester VEGF to render it incapable of angiogenesis. The delivery and long term incorporation of this gene is a major hurdle, as past experiments have been shown to be effective but temporary. My hypothesis is that incorporation of the Flt23K gene directly into the genome using a piggyBac plasmid will lead to long term reduction of corneal neovascularization in response to an injury. This will be done by first constructing a plasmid that will insert itself into the genome of a mouse cornea. Mechanical trauma will be induced in order to promote neovascularization. After a biological response has been able to take place, the cornea will be harvested and measured for levels of VEGF and other factors that are related to angiogenesis.
By using the piggyBac method, a plasmid will be created to transpose into a host...

Find Another Essay On Angiogenesis

Pericytes and Vasculature Essay

966 words - 4 pages vessels undergoing angiogenesis. . In a study that used the growth factor sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) to stimulate cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, RGS-5 expression was constrained to the leading edge of migrating pericytes. This restriction of RGS-5 greatly reduced cell migration suggesting that RGS-5 may control the inhibitory response of pericytes to growth factors leading to vessel stabilization. Interestingly, the animals in

Therapuetic Essay

1072 words - 5 pages . Therapeutic angiogenesis aims at treating ischemic diseases by generating new blood vessels from existing vasculature. This is achieved by delivering exogenous factors to stimulate neovasculature formation. Induction of neovasculature provides a potential therapy to treat many ischemic illnesses, especially cardiovascular diseases including coronary and peripheral arterial diseases. Three approaches for therapeutic angiogenesis include promoting the

Endothelial Cells

2255 words - 9 pages cell proliferation.6,7 VEGF Functions The role of VEGF on the endothelial cell cannot be overstated. VEGF, as its name implies, is a chemical signal used to stimulate the growth of new vessels. Playing a key role in the generation and maintenance of fenestrae as well as being the most important stimulator of angiogenesis, overexpression of VEGF-A (the most often-referenced) can contribute to a host of cardiovascular pathologies.8 Angiogenesis

IQGAP1, RAS/MAPK pathway and Cancer

975 words - 4 pages found attached to the cell surface, and they are associated with normal cell growth and oncogenesis. EGFRvIII has the ability to enhance the tumorigenicity behaviour of a cell, stimulating its proliferation and angiogenesis 2. The cell migration process requires a few steps, such as cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The interaction of IQGAP1 with EGFRvIII, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and proteins that regulate the

Endothelial progenitor cells: an insight into their therapeutic role in cardiovascular disease & biomarker potential

914 words - 4 pages & Zhao 2013) (Fadini). EPCs also have great potential as biomarkers in cardiovascular disease, and are currently being used to predict cardiovascular events for clinical applications (Sen et al. 2011). EPCs have promising results in the therapy of diseases associated with deficit in angiogenesis such as ischemic and chronic wounds and peripheral vascular disease. Diverse subtypes of EPCs are used to treat ischemic diseases through their ability

All About Shark Cartilage

2159 words - 9 pages promise for battling cancer and other diseases that cause the formation of malignant tumors (http://www.realife.com/whtisshk.htmlhttp://www.realife.com/whtisshk.html - http://www.realife.com/whtissk.html). Thus, shark cartilage, which significantly slows the development of blood vessels that nourish tumors, has the ability to limit tumor growth. Therefore the rationale of treatment with shark cartilage is to inhibit angiogenesis or the development

Pathway Reconstruction of Airway Remodeling in Chronic Lung Diseases

2526 words - 10 pages demonstrate a comprehensive map of the regulating airway remodeling in human airway epithelial cells of mustard lung. This pathway is composed of complexes of physically interacting genes and proteins, which are investigated with molecular biology approaches in genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics. Previous studies have shown various signaling paths such as: angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress, mucous secretion, apoptosis

Biology

508 words - 2 pages growth of blood vessels. VEGF restores the oxygen supply back to the cell when the blood circulation has been affected, while HF-1 helps tumors survive by turning on the genes needed under hypoxic conditions. While the HIF-1 cells promote the development of angiogenesis, then the null cells would not be expected to aid the growth of the tumor.The researchers grew HIF-1 null stem cells under hypoxic conditions. The capability of the HIF-1 null cells

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Treatment of Heart Disease

1196 words - 5 pages angiogenesis. Angiogenesis reestablishes oxygenated blood flow to the damaged heart tissue. While producing new tissue cells is a benefit to treating damaged heart tissue other important traits make mesenchymal stem cells a good match for heart treatments. Recently, clinical trials have focused on benefits produced by the biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells rather than cell differentiation (Ankrum and Karp 203; Meirelles et al. 421

Wound Management

1407 words - 6 pages events that occur during the granulation, epithelisation and contraction stages of the proliferative phase.GranulationAlso known as Angiogenesis, which is the growth of new blood vessels(Bale et al. 2000). Is an essential ingredient for regeneration of granulation tissue. Tissue hypoxia (low oxygen) sets in following disruption to the blood flow on injury, stimulating macrophages to secrete a substance known as angiogenesis factor. The process of

What Are Micro RNA

1213 words - 5 pages . Angiogenesis The process of angiogenesis is the development of blood vessels. It is vital for all higher organisms, as oxygen is not able to diffuse throughout the body, but must be carried to cells far from the lungs. One of the main system that controls angiogenesis and the maintenance of the blood vessels is angiopoietin-TIE17. TIE1 and TIE2 are tyrosine kinase receptors that have extracellular domains similar to that of EGF and Ig18. They were

Similar Essays

Anti Angiogenesis: The Route To Preventative Medicine

764 words - 4 pages The study of angiogenesis has led scientists to develop methods of preventing the onset of deadly diseases. Dr. William Li quotes this study as “eating to starve cancer”, but we can also eat to starve obesity. One recently developed concept based on preventative care is anti-angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the tendency of blood vessels to grow in response to bodily circumstances. If, for example, an individual is injured and loses a significant

Invitro And Insilico Anti Angiogenesis Of Plant

864 words - 4 pages Most of the drugs available today are from plant origin, which can avoid not only side effects but also multiple steps in the synthesis of chemical compounds. It is the oldest form of health care known to mankind which is reported in herbal pharmacopoeia. Along the lines, we have identified that one of the Sophora family members (Sophora flavescens) has shown to arrest the cell cycle and inhibit the angiogenesis by down regulating the expression

Adult Tissue Angiogenesis: Evidence For Negative Regulation By Estrogen In The Uterus

1220 words - 5 pages Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed. It does not usually actively occur in adults, with the only non-pathological exception being in the female reproductive organs. Angiogenesis in these tissues is necessary to supply and support the endometrial growth which occurs during different stages in the ovaries and uterus (Yasuda et al, 1998). The ability to understand and manipulate angiogenic factors, therefore

Angiogenic Therapy Essay

2046 words - 8 pages from the body is known as “angiogenesis”. The publication of Dr. Judah Folkman’s paper entitled, “Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications” (New England Journal of Medicine, 1971) has influenced cancer research by establishing a new field of study with treatment possibilities that solve many age-old therapeutic dilemmas. Angiogenic therapy offers a universal treatment approach to all cancers, better mechanisms for catching cancer early, and also