Currently, Animals experimentation is becoming a controversial topic. As millions of creatures have been tested to benefit human life. A simple definition of this procedure is observing scientific laboratory examinations on live animals. There are many campaigns around the world which reject these tests and request the alternatives. They believe that this kind of experimentation is harmful for people as much as it is cruel to animals while others argue these experiments are substantial for humans live as they are used in important medical research. In this project I will present different areas of this hotly debated issue with an important clarification of the history of animals testing and the common use of it with outlining both negative and positive aspects of them. Then, I will offer possible alternatives to these experiments .
2. HISTORY OF ANIMAL TESTING
Animal experiments history can be referred to ancient Greeks and Romans writings. The first experiments on living animals were performed by a Greek scientist called Erasistratus in 18th century. During the18th and 19thcenturies these tests transferred from being relatively uncommon to a scientific mainstream. In Russia, the development of embryos was discovered by the Zoologist Christian Pander In 1817, which led to same discovery in human embryos. Additionally, in 1912, dogs were used to study rejoining severed nerves by a French surgeon called Alexis Carrel. This was the first step in organ transplantation.
In 1921, Frederick Banting caused the revolution of diabetes medicines by improving the pancreatic ducts of dogs, and discovered that the isolation of pancreatic secretion can keep dogs with diabetes alive. He followed up these experiments with chemical isolation of insulin in 1922 with John Macleod. After many years, using animals in medical research has had plenty of changes and developments. A good instance of this is Dolly the sheep, which was born as a first cloned animal in the world in 1996.
3. Animals commonly used
Laboratories animal has to have special properties such as, an appropriate body size to ease dealing with it during the experiments, cheap to house and easy to breed like mice and rats; another good example is Beagles which are the most commonly used dogs because they are docile, trusting and obedient. Furthermore, there are several sorts of animal which are widely used on these tests such as, fish, birds, reptile, mammals and amphibian.
According to the website of national statistic in the United Kingdom the usage of laboratories mice has the highest percentages with 69% while the total of other types usage is only 31%.
4. The use of Animals Experiments in the following fields
1- Biomedical research
2- Toxicity testing.
3- Biological science. ...