How do the pigs use propaganda techniques to create a revolution that leads to their hegemony?
The Russian Revolution took place in 1917, during the final phase of World War I. It removed Russia from the war and brought about the transformation of the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), replacing Russia’s traditional monarchy with the world’s first Communist state. The allegorical tale ‘Animal Farm’ written by George Orwell, published in 1945, symbolises the Revolution as it includes the acts leading up to the Russian Revolution and then onto the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union. The novel incorporates many propaganda techniques which are used to create a revolution that leads to the pigs hegemony, whether that includes the unforgettable speech given by Old Major, the manipulative ways the pigs get what they want or even The Beasts Of England song that the animals can’t get enough of.
Propaganda techniques are used in several ways. The first example is the song ‘Beasts of England,’ which is spread around the farm and even to other farms; this song motivates the animals to think about revolution, and to fight a specified enemy – humans. The song never outright specifies who the enemies are but it says, ‘Rings shall vanish from our noses, And the harness from our back, Bit and spur shall rust forever, Cruel whips no more shall crack’. The animals sing about the devices Mr Jones uses to keep his power. The 'bit and spur' and 'whips' are used to cruelly keep the animals under control. They say that all of those things shall disappear and for some time after the revolution, they do disappear. But after the pigs become power hungry, the rings and harnesses come back, not literally but rather symbolically as the pigs completely take charge of every step they take; the other animals work ’sixty hours a week’ and yet they still can’t please Napoleon! The ‘Beasts of England’ song is then changed to ‘Comrade Napoleon’ after the revolution is over. The pigs don’t want the animals to remember how they once overthrew a tyrannical leader because the pigs are pretty tyrannical too, so the poem talks about Napoleon’s greatness. The poem tells the animals that they are better off with Napoleon saying ‘full belly twice a week’, once again appealing to the animals’ basic needs. Of course none of this is true, Napoleon actually takes advantage of ‘his’ animals and lives off their labour. The last line of the poem ‘thou watchest over all, comrade Napoleon’ is almost threatening, ergo reminding the animals that Napoleon is always watching so they shouldn’t dare to even think about impeaching him, allowing the revolution to continue and the pigs to stay in power.
The character that represents Karl Marc is Old Major as they both masterminded the political theory behind their revolutions. We are first introduced to Old Major while he is giving the speech which sparked the revolution. He is always represented as an animal that everyone...