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Animal Health Assignment (Includes Pathogens Ie. Viruses, Bacteria, Protozoa Etc. And Vaccination)

2493 words - 10 pages

Health is a state of physical and psychological well-being. Health is compromised by disease. Disease is any condition which causes deviation from the normal conditions you expect to see during an animal's life. Disease is caused by micro organisms called pathogens; these include viruses, bacteria and protozoa.VIRUSESSize: between 30 and 300 nmViruses are a protein coat around a DNA or RNA strand.They are not living cells as they have no metabolism of their own.They are all parasites which reproduce within host cells and kill them.Methods of infection include:*By water*By droplet (sneezing)*By vector (another animal which carries the disease without developing it itself, eg. Mosquitoes, fleas)Method of Infection (virus)1) Virus injects DNA (genes) into bacterium.2) Virus genes order assembly of hundreds of new viruses- killing bacterium.3) New viruses freed from dead cell to attack further bacteria.BACTERIASize: between 0.1 and 10µmCell is unique in not having:*Nuclear membrane around its single loop chromosome so there is no nucleus.*Mitochondria (cell membrane has no function)Reproduction is carried out asexually by binary fission.Binary fission1) Starts with single cell2)'Cross wall' laid down middleof the cell3)Cell splits in 2 to form new cellsBacterial ShapesCoccus Bacillus Vibrio SpirillumBacteria can be both helpful and harmful. They are living cells which will multiply very rapidly in the right conditions by cell division. Harmful bacteria attack tissues or release poisons.Both bacteria and viruses can infect animals in the following ways:*By air- inhaling minute droplets of infected mucous expelled during coughing and sneezing.*By water- especially if contaminated by faeces eg. Cholera and dysentery*By mud- introduced into wounds eg. Tetanus and gangrene*Sexually- during copulation*By vectors eg. Mosquitoes- yellow feverIn general viruses and bacteria enter via natural openings of the body or enter forcibly by passing through the skin.FUNGIFungi consist of multicellular filaments called hyphaeThe cytoplasm contains many nuclei and lines the cell wall.Inside the cytoplasm is a continuous vacuoleReproduction is asexual by production of sporesFungi can also be helpful as well as harmful.In animals it causes minor diseases such as athlete's foot and ringworm which are skin diseases.PROTOZOAProtozoa are unicellular (single-celled) animals.They have organelles which allow then to move in a variety of waysPseudopodia allow them to flow, and flagella and cilia allow them to swimWater enters continually by osmosis (osmoregulation)Gaseous exchange takes place over the whole surface areaReproduction is asexual by binary fissionProtozoa can cause serious illness such as malaria and dysenteryAn animal's immune system protects it from potentially harmful substances by recognising and responding to antigens. An antigen is a chemical substance found on the surface of an invading micro-organism, antibodies are produced by certain white blood cells...

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