This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease Essay

7146 words - 29 pages

AbstractAnimal models of autoimmune disease have been of vital importance in the advancement of our understanding of central pathological processes that underlie disease causation. Despite continuing debate over the ethics of using animal models in research, progress in the field has been phenomenal in recent times, and a whole host of models, particularly mouse models, have been developed. In this review we examine the strengths and limitations of the various animal models currently in use to emulate some important autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and asthma) and look at the future directions that research in this area may take.IntroductionIn ...view middle of the document...

The vast number of murine models available encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders - from rheumatoid arthritis to multiple sclerosis. To overcome the difficulty of organising and accessing the large amounts of information on the various models, a large consortium of researchers set up a searchable database - the MUGEN Mouse Database (MMdb) (Aidinis et al. 2007) that allows any researcher to view details about the various models that have been generated. This appears to be the best solution that enables researches to better integrate their investigative efforts, and should be applied to the new rat models that are beginning to become widespread.Rheumatoid arthritisOverviewRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common (prevalence = approximately 1%) (Lawrence et al. 1998) systemic disorder the hallmarks of which are chronic, symmetrical, inflammatory synovitis of mainly peripheral joints. Its course is extremely variable and it is associated with nonarticular features that can sometimes be prominent. Over the course of the disease, chronic synovitis (inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae with a infiltration of macrophages, T-cells, polymorphs, etc.) leads to erosions of normal articular tissue. These pathological changes manifest clinically as a variety of deformities and contribute to long-term disability. Mortality rates in RA patients are also higher, compared with rates observed in the general population (Lawrence et al. 1998).Examination of RA tissue specimens from arthroscopy and joint replacement procedures, and other studies in humans suggest that many facets of the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved. Some of the well-established factors involved in RA pathogenesis include genetic susceptibility, abnormal T-cell and subsequently B-cell responses to autoantigens (Imboden 2009). Environmental influences also have a role in disease causation, but these are largely unknown, and many believe that a sensitisation event coupled with abnormal antigen presentation leads to autoimmunity.Present ModelsEarlier animal models, such as collagen-induced (Trentham, AS Townes, and Kang 1977) (Courtenay et al. 1980) (Holmdahl et al. 1990) or proteoglycan -induced arthritis (CIA/PIA) (Glant, Finnegan, and Mikecz 2003), were based on the hypothesis that RA results from an adaptive immune response to a joint-specific antigen. Genetically susceptible mice (and later monkeys (Yoo et al. 1988)) are repeatedly exposed (via intraperitoneal and/or subcutaneous injection) to purified autologous or heterologous type II collagen (or cartilage proteoglycans like aggrecan, in the case of proteoglycan-induced arthritis) (Glant and Mikecz 2004). Further induced models were subsequently generated. This led to the development of a systemic autoimmune arthritis in the subjects. Comprehensive study of these models has yielded vital evidence for the concept that autoimmunity to joint-specific antigens can lead to arthritis.The...

Find Another Essay On Animal Models Of Autoimunne Disease

Animal Rights Essay

856 words - 3 pages reaction upon certain drugs can be totally distinctive. Roy Kupsinel, M.D. once announced that "animal experimentation produces a lot of misleading and confusing data which poses hazards to human health. For example, 4 million patients per year are hospitalised for side effects caused by thoroughly tested' drugs, and of those 50,000 die of the cures,' not the disease". According to Davis, "aspirin causes birth defects in rats and mice

The Necessities of Animal Experimentation Essay

1315 words - 5 pages and tested on animals (Breen)? Understanding the body’s functions requires scientific discoveries from animal research, and because humans and animals share more than 250 common illnesses, testing on animals is extremely beneficial to humans. Opponents of animal testing advocate alternative means such as using computer models in experiments. They cite differences in the genetic makeup of common lab animals from humans as evidence that

Why Animal Testing Should Be Illegal

1019 words - 5 pages deliver exact results as opposed to animal testing(Gericke). These facts have overshadowed the claim that animals serve as good models of the human body . Animal testing is also dangerous. Animals and humans can react differently or indifferently to chemicals, because humans are different from animals in anatomy, phycology, and metabolism. One study conducted by the pharmaceutical company, Pfizer stated that only five to twenty five

Science Needs Animal Testing

2122 words - 9 pages dollars are being spent annually on animal testing. According to a recent article by PETA, “Based on NIH’s 2010 budget, animal testing accounts for more than 16 billions in U.S. taxpayer money” (par 1). Despite this, it is an acceptable moral price to pay when millions of people around the world, whom are suffering from fatal and incurable disease, can be saved. It is understandably difficult for humans to, at the same time, conducting animal studies

Animal Experimentation Pros and Cons

2364 words - 10 pages organs. Also blindness, high blood pressure, and other conditions have to be studied in actual tissue. Computer models can’t be accurate unless there is animal research anyway. Even supercomputers can’t make accurate models of complex organs. The third pro is that animals are great to conduct research on because they are very similar to humans. For example, Chimpanzees have DNA 99% similar to humans and Mice have DNA 98% similar to humans which is

Pro's of Psychological Animal Research

1291 words - 5 pages neurological illnesses. Animal research has played a vital part in nearly every medical breakthrough over the last decade. Since we share around 95 percent of our genome with a mouse, they are very effective and useful models for the human body and mind. As a result, we can use animals to help cure things such as diseases and genetic disorders. For example when the disease known as "polio" which is an acute, viral, infectious disease which affects nerves

An Inside Look at Animal Experimentation

1733 words - 7 pages cautious about extrapolating the finding of prominent animal research to the care of human disease … poor replication of even high-quality animal studies should be expected by those who conduct clinical research” (Animal Experiments: Overview). Diseases that are artificially forced upon animals in a laboratory are under no circumstances identical to those that transpire naturally in human beings. For example, cigarettes were formerly indicated as

Why Animal Testing?

1066 words - 5 pages not have developed in the same way in the body of a mouse (Thomas, 1). What she is saying is if an animal has the same disease as a human and they are both treated, test results are likely to differ. The disease developed differently in the animal’s body and the human’s body. Another alternative scientists have invented to replace animal testing are computer models that simulate the biology of a human body (Computer in silico Modeling). Like

Animal Experimentation in Scientific Research

2561 words - 10 pages horrible living conditions. This shows that they experience distress before they even enter the laboratory and being experimentation. It is estimated that more than 100 million animals are used in America “as models biological and medical research to study human disease, injury, development, psychology, and anatomy and physiology” (AAVS). Millions of animals are given these diseases and injuries to be studied for medical research in hopes of insight

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages consumers.  Though some may disagree, animal testing is both beneficial and practical to the well being of both humans and animals. Animal testing saves countless lives and plays a practical role in medical advances. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2009, heart disease claimed the lives of some 616,067 people (“FastStats”). However, due to the continuous

Why Animal Testing Isn't Always Representative of What Will Happen in Humans

1787 words - 8 pages 2004, but harmful effects in people can be seen from as early as 1996 (Tragedy). In the animal test, the results indicated that Vioxx might actually reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke; however, when the drug was released, it caused people to have blood clots and ended up killing an estimated 27,000 people. It wasn’t proven until the human trials in 2001, but wasn’t pulled until 2004 (Tragedy). This, once again, was a failure of both animal

Similar Essays

Transgenic Animal With Human Dna Essay

632 words - 3 pages animal. Transgenic animal with human DNA can benefit humans by utilising transgenic animals as disease models (Armao 2013; Bemis & Jo 2011; Martin & Caldwell 2011; Wolchover 2011). AIDS mouse, alzheimer's mice, oncomouse and transpharmers animal are some transgenic animals that are used as disease models (Martin & Caldwell 2011). According to Susan Wilson, associate director of Sanders University Animal Care, animals are modified by inserting

Limitation On Animal Testing Essay

952 words - 4 pages experimentation because animals are held in isolated cages, forced to be inserted with disease, inflicted with injury, or killed at the end of the study. Animal experimentation are more expensive than alternative methods and most of the time a waste of government research dollars. According to the Humane Society International “An "unscheduled DNA synthesis" animal test costs $32,000, while the in vitro alternative costs $11,000. A "rat photo toxicity test

The Necessity Of Animal Testing Essay

1299 words - 5 pages create vaccines, records and treatments have evolved tremendously. Supporters of anti-animal experimentation also argue that because of these advancements, the need for animal testing is completely unnecessary. The structure, anatomy and psychology of animals differ from humans, making them inadequate models for human related research. “It has been suggested that several alternative technologies, including computer modeling, micro-dosing, and

The Use Of Animals In Medical Research

993 words - 4 pages biomedical research is necessary.Laboratory animals can play an important role as biological models for the study of physiological functions and cognitive functions in humans, and as disease models for understanding the mechanisms of human diseases and medical conditions. Animal models can help make clear many aspects of a disease or medical condition by providing a means of thoroughly studying the circumstances necessary to produce impairments observed