Animal testing has continued to be used throughout the makeup industry, with over 200 main stream brands actively testing on animals (PeTA, 2012). Some of which include prestigious brands such as Clinique, Elizabeth Arden and Lancôme. The need for change comes as animals are continuously being exploited by these large companies.
For all the testing of cosmetics and toiletry products on animals has been banned in the UK, laboratories that use mice, rats, birds, reptiles and amphibians are exempted from the minimal protections under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). Furthermore many companies claim to be animal testing free in the UK but are not including products made abroad.
The issue arises as customers are aware of the negative impacts of animal testing and disagree with it, however are choosing to ignore. It is especially important to change attitudes now as customers are becoming more scrutinising than ever due to the development of the new consumer. It will be discussed how animal cruelty organisations can change the attitude of the general public and customers, ultimately aligning their belief's with their behaviours.
1. Problems Marketing Executives Face
1.1 Cognitive Dissonance
Looking at individual psychology and how it affects attitudes- in this industry in particular cognitive dissonance is the most prominent issue marketing executives must overcome.
Cognitive dissonance theory is concerned with the relations among cognitive elements (cognitions). When two cognitions are in dissonant relation the person with those two cognitions is said to have dissonance (Festinger's, 1957). Dissonance is taken to be an aversive motivational state; persons will want to avoid experiencing dissonance, and if they do, they will attempt to reduce it (O'Keef, 2002). This presents a problem for marketing executives as the cognition that animal testing is wrong and buying ethical products, are dissonant from one another. From the knowledge that animal testing is wrong, it follows that the customer would buy ethical products- however they are not.
The issue for marketing executives occurs as customers do not want to experience dissonance and seek to reduce it, making it harder for marketing executives to influence attitudes. In order to avoid dissonance customers are likely to place more importance on the consistent elements, such as the higher price of ethical products, by focusing on these factors customers are less open to change. Because of this the ethical market has struggled; some sectors, including ethical clothing and ethical cosmetics, are vulnerable during times of economic crisis because they tend to have higher price tags (KeyNote, 2013). This presents a challenge when trying to change attitudes as a psychological resistance is already present.
Furthermore dissonance may vary in magnitude: one may have a lot of dissonance, a little or a moderate amount (O'Keef, 2002). As the magnitude of dissonance varies- so will the pressure to...