A. Motivation Principles
Carol’s behavior of excessive talking off subject during lessons on topics that do not interest her is directly related to Glasser’s Choice Theory. Glasser believes that when any of the five basic needs (survival, to belong and be loved by others, to have power and importance, freedom and independence, and to have fun) are not met in the classroom, in Carol’s case it is fun, then negative behaviors can occur. Glasser also believes that when these needs are met, then students are well behaved and content. Because Carol feels that the lesson is “boring and useless”, her need to have fun is not being met and she therefore misbehaves and disrupts class and talk off topic (Charles, 1999). Most likely, Carol’s negative behavior has been reinforced by altering or reducing the duration of the lesson and this is why she continues to misbehave (ABI, 2010).
Antecedent-based intervention (ABI) includes identifying the antecedent, recognizing the need to be fulfilled, and implementing methods to achieve desired outcomes through a functional behavior assessment (FBA). By utilizing a FBA, the path to achieving desired outcomes is clearly defined. The relationship between an antecedent and behavior is correlated with the environment that the student is a part of and can be directly related to a negative behavior. The antecedent in Carol’s case is clear: Carol feels the lesson is “boring and useless” which does not meet her need to have fun, and consequently leads directly to her negative behavior of talking off subject and thus interrupting the class. Because Carol is uninterested in the lesson, her need to have fun is not met and she disrupts the class using avoidance behavior (Charles, 1999; ABI, 2010).
A possible consequence for Carol disrupting the class by talking off topic is that she will not absorb information being discussed during the lesson that she feels is “boring and useless”. Her need to choose what topic is being discussed has not been met and she chooses not to pay attention. Not paying attention can cause Carol to fail on her assignments and any assessment given on the topic. By avoiding the antecedent and consequence, the negative behavior can be avoided (ABI, 2010).
A3. Instructional Intervention
An instructional intervention that could be implemented in Carol’s case would be including high-interest materials to engage Carol, keeping her on task, and thus mitigating negative behaviors. An example of high-interest materials that could be used in the lesson is a high-energy game. A high-energy game that incorporates movement and verbal drilling of information can keep the whole group on task (ABI, 2010). Kounin describes this technique as ‘positive’, stating that using something that is not ordinary will keep student interest and reduce negative behavior. Kounin recommends that introducing a challenge into a lesson can keep interest and entice students to take on...