Anthrax Essay

1574 words - 6 pages

Al Joseph DubouzetKelly EckenrodeMicrobiology 230: Research paperAnthrax: Bacillus AnthracisAbstract:Anthrax is a disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus Anthracis. It can cause two type of diseases called gastrointestinal anthrax and cutaneous anthrax. B. Anthracis is a disease of herbivores, particularly human food animals, and has a worldwide distribution. Before the invention of an effective antibiotics, there were huge losses of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and donkeys. In 1923, it was estimated between 30,000 and 60,000 animals died of anthrax. At death, the animal contains 10 to the 8 bacilli. When the spores are outside the animal body, it is hard for it to grow unless a human action changes it. Some ways that people get infected through B. Anthracis is by inhaling or ingesting the substance and the skin injury or lesion which lets the bacteria enter. Besides animal tissue, the bacteria can be found in the air and soil. Symptoms of inhaling the bacteria can lead to an increasing respiratory distress with dyspnea, stridor, cyanosis, increased chest pain and sweating. Respiratory distress is typically followed by the rapid onset of shock and death within 24-36 hours. People can usually recover by the use of antibiotics and the development of peptide, but with a repeated use. In order to be prepared for upcomings of anthrax or B. Anthracis, it is important to learn more about it through quick extraction.Introduction:Anthrax is a disease of herbivores, although all mammals, including human and some flying species can contact it. It is a worldwide distribution and is a disease communicable by animals which also known as zoonosis. The bacteria that is associated to anthrax is called Bacillus Anthracis. This bacteria is gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus (1). Because it is a gram positive, it contain thick cell walls that are rich in peptidoglycan and liposaccharides.Sporulation occurs only when the vegetative form is exposing to the atmosphere and conditions are unfavorable for the continued multiplications of the vegetative form which include drought and heavy rain. Anthrax spores have high resistance against heat and chemical disinfectants. Normally, when there is a suspected dead animal that is infected, people would not perform an autopsy on it. If the dead animal or carcass just so happened to be opened by a scavenger or an autopsy, the B. Anthracis would be released from the carcass exposing itself to other mammals and humans (1,7).Like most bacterias that are harmful to humans and animals, there are vaccinations and antibiotics available to combat it. However, they have to be administered as soon as possible so antibiotic can be at most effective. There are other ways to treat the bacteria, B. Anthracis with the development of peptides and antibodies which can be very helpful, but there are drawbacks too. The patient would have to continuously be given the meds as if they...

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