Anthropology: The Origins Of Anthropology Anthro 102 Outline

879 words - 4 pages

UIC/LAMOTTA/ANTH 102
Lecture 01 Outline
Lecture Outline: Course Introduction and Principles of Archaeology
I. ARCHAEOLOGY: IMAGES OF THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
A. Howard Carter/Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun
B. William L. Rathje/The Garbage Project
C. Archaeology and Humankind’s Future
II. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY
A. Archaeology—Several Definitions
B. Different Kinds of Archaeology
1. Classical Archaeology
2. Egyptology
3. Biblical Archaeology
4. Underwater Archaeology
5. Historical Archaeology
6. Prehistoric Archaeology
C. Prehistory
1. Definition of Prehistory
2. Appearance and Nature of Earliest Written Documents
3. Biases of History
D. Archaeology as Anthropology
1. Definition of Anthropology
2. Four Subfields of Anthropology
a. Biological Anthropology
b. Cultural Anthropology
c. Linguistic Anthropology
d. Anthropological Archaeology
3. Contributions of Archaeology to Anthropology
a. Long Time-Frame for Studying Change
b. Focus on Technology and Material Aspects of Behavior and Adaptation
III. ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
A. Definition of Archaeological Site
B. Variation in Size and Complexity of Sites
C. Four Constituents of Archaeological Sites
1. Artifacts
2. Ecofacts
3. Features
4. Sediments
D. Sediment Layers (Strata) in Archaeological Sites/Stratigraphy
E. Formation of Archaeological Sites
1. Catastrophic Destruction and Burial (Pompeii)
2. Gradual, Planned Abandonment
a. Discarded Artifacts and Trash Middens
b. Processes of Decay and Burial
3. Conditions Affecting Preservation
4. Disturbance
F. Discovery, Analysis, and Interpretation of Artifacts and Sites
1. Fieldwork: Survey and Excavation
2. Vertical and Horizontal Excavation
3. Recovery and Analysis of Artifacts, Ecofacts, Features, and Sediments
a. Recovery Techniques—Archaeologists Save Everything (Contrast with Relic Hunting)
b. Analysis by Trained Specialists
c. Maps and Profiles
4. The Concept of Context
IV. ARCHAEOLOGICAL INFERENCE
A. How Archaeologists Construct Knowledge about the Past
B. Definition of Inference
C. Traces
D. Footprints Example
E. Arrowhead Example
F. Testing Inferences
G. Specialized Fields of Archaeology—Help Build Inferences about the Past
1. Ethnoarchaeology
2. Experimental Archaeology
H. Archaeology as Detective Work
V. THEMES IN ARCHAEOLOGY: TIME AND CHANGE
A. Adaptation
B. Biological Evolution and Natural Selection
1. Primary Mode of Adaptation Early in Human Career
2. Theory of Natural Selection (Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace)
C. Cultural Adaptation
1. Culture, Behavior, Biology
2. Past 100,000 Years of Human Life Dominated by Cultural Adaptation
3. Culture as Buffer
4. Adaptation to Natural and Social Environments
D. Geological Time Scale as Context for Discussing Long-Term Change in Humankind
1. Pliocene
2. Pleistocene
3. Holocene
E. Periods of Stasis, Periods of Rapid Change in Human Adaptations
Important Terms and Definitions from the Lectures...

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