Obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. The main goal of this review was to know a safe and effective anti-ghrelin vaccine for obesity, through the chemical conjugation of active ghrelin with NS1 protein tubules from the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) using a hetero-bifunctional cross linker. Ghrelin is a gut hormone that promotes weight gain by increasing appetite and food intake while decreasing energy expenditure All data and information obtained is used to discuss the issues that have been formulated. The data show that immunized animals present increasing titres of anti-ghrelin antibodies, while their cumulative food intake significantly decreased and energy expenditure was significantly enhanced, although there were no significative changes in body weight. This anti ghrelin vaccine using virus-like particles has a positive impact on energy homeostasis and may become an alternate treatment for obesity, to be used in combination with diet and exercise.
Keywords: Obesity, Ghrelin, Vaccine, NS1 protein, The Bluetongue Virus (BTV), Virus-Like Particles
Obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths1. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity has been increasing worldwide in the last decades, not only adults but starting as early as in childhood and adolescence1,2,3. More recent estimates suggest that body weight gain will continue to increase, particularly in the younger people4.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States: more than 20% of adults are clinically obese as defined by a body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or higher, and an additional 30% are overweight. Environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors have been shown to contribute to the development of obesity. Elevated body mass index, particularly caused by abdominal or upper-body obesity, has been associated with a number of diseases and metabolic abnormalities, many of which have high morbidity and mortality5.
A new therapeutic vaccine to treat obesity is anti ghrelin vaccine, which can decreases food intake and increases calorie burning in mice, a new study finds. Ghrelin is a gut hormone that promotes weight gain by increasing appetite and food intake while decreasing energy expenditure, or calorie burning. This anti-ghrelin vaccine may become an alternate treatment for obesity, to be used in combination with diet and exercise. Through a chemical conjugate of active ghrelin with protein tubules of NS1 of the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) using a hetero-bifunctional cross linker. Although this protein is not part of the viral capsid, NS1 tubules has the same immunogenic characteristics as classical VLPs6,7,8.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been used as immunogenic molecules in several recombinant vaccines in the last few years in order to induce the production of specific antibodies against endogenous molecules...