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Antibiotic Resistance Essay

2775 words - 12 pages

According to Selman Waksman , " an antibiotic is any small molecule made by a microbe that antagonizes the growth of other microbes (Clardy et al. , 2011)." . Antibiotics have been around for thousands of years . "For instance , tetracycline a common antibiotic used for periodontal disease dates back to 350-550 CCE . Traces of it have been found in the bones of human remains in Sudanese Nubia along with the femoral midshafts of human vestiges dating back to the late Roman period in Dakhleh Oasis , Egypt (Clardy et al. , 2011)." . Antibiotics are the most potent form of chemotherapy with a high success rate in the history of medicine . We can associate the "anti-biotic era" with Paul Ehrlich and Alexander Flemming . "Ehrlich is responsible for the method of screening for viable drugs to combat diseases that pharmaceutical companies use (Aminov 2010)." Flemming on the other hand is accountable for the discovery of penicillin on September 3 , 1928 . This was a live saving discovery . The 1950's through the 1970's is known as the Golden Era of discovery for novel antibiotic classes . This was the time where sulfa drugs were discovered , and thousand of other drugs were identified . We entered into the new millennia knowing that the "Golden Era" had come to an end . Globally there had begun alarming increase in antibiotic resistance . With great discoveries also come inordinate problems . From 1944 until much penicillin a common antibiotic used for many bacterial diseases had a wide scale production and its usage increased . Had it not been sent out to the warfront during WWII many of the soldiers would have succumbed to bacterial diseases . Eventually , many of the bacterial species that was intended to kill continued to survive treatments due to resistance mechanisms . "In the 1940's , resistance to streptomycin , chloramphenicol , and tetracycline was noted (Karder , 2005)." There was evidencing that bacteria could pass genes for drug resistance between strains and between species . From then on antibiotic resistance has continued to escalate . Resistance to commonly use antibiotics is steadily increasing , while there is no treatment for many of the infection that is caused by the antibiotic resistant bacteria . "It is estimated that two million Americans fall ill from antibiotic resistance every year ; twenty-three thousand of them die (Karder , 2005)." Antibiotics / an Antibiotic / the Antibiotic resistant bacteria falls under a broad spectrum of microorganisms . There aren't just one main resistant bacterial strain involved in these public health crises . The dramatic change in microbial environment is the result of the development of drug resistance . This resistance is caused by the ubiquitous use of antibiotic drugs . Over time microbes have reacted to the assault of antibiotics and have adapted themselves . To name a few MRSA (Methacillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)s , Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamase , Sulfonamide/Trimethoprim and...

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