The role of Healthcare strategies in controlling Antibiotic Resistance
This article discusses the impact that antibiotic use has had in the role of increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Antibiotics are broadly used in the treatment of bacterial infections, which has led to survival and adaptation of the microbe and has decrease the antibiotics efficacy. This will eventually lead to infections that are no longer treatable according to Aziz. Antibiotic resistance is on the rise and cause for national attention; the threat of antibiotic resistance is a “ticking time bomb” ranked alongside terrorism on the list of threats to the nation (Aziz, 2013). This is a worldwide threat that has caused a significant decrease in the number of antibiotics that are effective against bacteria.
How Antibiotics Work
Antibiotics disrupt the bacterial cell at different levels and can either kill bacterial or keep it from reproducing (Aziz, 2013). Some antibiotics can prevent the cell wall from forming and cause lysis of the cell. By disrupting the cell envelope, the high oncotic pressure inside the cell draws fluid into it until it burst. Similarly, by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane the energy producing system of the cell ceases and kills the cell. Antibiotics can prevent protein synthesis and DNA synthesis. Bacteria will utilize resources from their human host, and use it in transcription and translation to manufacture proteins. However, antimicrobials can act by binding to and inhibiting this process, thereby stopping the bacteria from functioning. Disrupting the DNA process stops the bacteria from reproducing and multiplying and effectively causes the death of the bacteria.
According to Aziz antibiotic resistance is the ability of the bacterial cell to resist the harmful effects of the antibiotic (Aziz 2013). The bacterial cell has several systems that enables them to resist therapy which include; a system that prevent entry into the cell, a system that destroys the antibiotic if it gains entry, a system that associates with the antibiotic inside the cell and blocks it, and a system that pumps the antibiotic out of the cell before it can cause any damage (Aziz, 2013). According to Aziz it is rare for a bacterium to have all these systems in place, however that is also changing in the rise of antibiotic resistance. The driving force behind this increase is the misuse of antibiotics. Interestingly, while some resistant pathogens are limited, others are widespread and according to Aziz, the highest rate of prevalence is seen in newly affluent countries (Aziz, 2013). Some epidemic strains include methicillin resistant staph aureus, Klebsiella Pneumonia. M. tuberculosis which has become resistant and virtually untreatable. Organisms such as Klebsiella and ecoli have also increased by two thirds in recent years and is now the leading cause of healthcare acquired infections (Aziz, 2013). Furthermore, antibiotics used in our...