Antibiotic resistance awareness between public, antibiotics dispensing and prescribing patterns in Najaf, Iraq
Mustafa Al Mosawi1, Ali Albakaa1, Haydar Alameen1, Hussein Fakhereldeen1 Yousif Naji2, Zaid Hayder Alathari1 & Ali Al-Behadili3
From 1 Faculty of Medicine , University of Kufa, Najaf , Iraq, 2 Al-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq, 3 The Sahlgrenska Academy , University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
Antibiotics are considered one of the most important discoveries in the last century. When antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, some of bacteria can respond by becoming resistant to the antibiotic used. This response is a natural phenomenon for survival by bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can become less effective. Many patients worldwide suffer harm due to antibiotic resistance because bacterial infections are not susceptible any more to treatment (1).
There is inadequate information about the mechanisms, conditions, and factors that lead to mobilization, selection and movement of resistant bacteria or resistant genes into and between animal and human populations (2).
No country can be isolated from this global problem even countries with preventive programs and policies (3). Antibiotic resistance is thus a global public health challenge of paramount importance (1, 4). The evolution of antibiotic resistance threatens the success of medical interventions at all levels of health care (1, 3, and 4).
There is ecological evidence as well as evidence at the individual patient level (5) from western world that the prevalence of resistance is positively correlated with prescription of antibiotics (6). Therefore improving prescribing practices can prevent further increase in antibiotic resistance (7). There is large volume of reports available on antibiotic use in different countries at both the national and the individual levels (8). However, there is a lack of data on this topic from Iraq, and we have unclear image about situation of antibiotic resistance there.
This study is part of a larger project driven by students (I-Act: Action on Antibiotic Resistance in Iraq), which has the long-term aim of facilitating rational use of antibiotics, increasing public awareness about this challenge and increasing civil society pressure on politicians to adapt policy and prevention programs for a healthier future.
The aim of this paper was to investigate what people know about antibiotic resistance, how private pharmacies dispense antibiotics and further to explore prescribing patterns for selected infectious disease complaints for adults and...