Summary of Article
I chose to summarize an article about preventing health care-acquired infections (HAI). One out of every twenty hospitalized patients will acquire a health care associated infection according to the CDC. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are becoming increasingly more prevalent. It is important for healthcare workers to understand these resistant bacteria and that patients may be infected or carriers of these different organisms.
A priority has been made in the prevention of MRSA. It has been increasingly common in the hospital setting especially in the ICU. It is defined as a beta-lactam antibiotic resistant staphylococcus bacteria by the CDC. Prevention of MRSA is a priority because of its multidrug resistant profile and high virulence. It is spread in the hospital by the hands of healthcare workers from patient to patient or by the improper or misuse of equipment. Prevention in the hospital setting includes the use of standard and contact precautions. Another strategy in the prevention of MRSA is the practice of decolonization in staphylococcus aureus carriers. A study called the REDUCE MRSA study showed that MRSA clinical infections could be reduced significantly in the ICU setting with the practice of universal decolonization. Universal decolonization consists of daily bathing of all ICU patients with chlorhexidine gluconate and the use of intranasal mupirocin two times a day.
A dangerous antibiotic resistant organism is CRE. It is nearly resistant to all antibiotics and has a high transmission rate and high mortality rate. Some CRE organisms include Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase and New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase. During the first half of 2012, there was at least one patient in 4% of short-stay hospitals and 18% of long-term acute care facilities in the United States with CRE. Those who are at greatest risk for this highly resistant organism are those who are on long-term therapy of certain antibiotics and those with indwelling devices such as urinary catheters, IV catheters, and ventilators. Prevention and control of CRE is outlined in eight core measures by the CDC. These include proper handwashing, contact precautions, staff education, keeping infected patients and the staff that care for them separated, proper use and cleaning of devices, screening for CRE, laboratory notification, and ensuring proper selection and use of antibiotics.
Bacteria resistant to vancomycin that are normally located in the intestines and female genital tract are considered VRE. Spread of VRE is usually by the hands of healthcare workers after...