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Antifungal Activity Of Botanicals On Neem Die Back Pathogen P. Azadirachtae

591 words - 3 pages

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) is a divine tree and a sacred gift of nature. It belongs to the family Meliaceae. It is well known for its medicinal and biopesticidal properties (NRC, 1992; Jayaraj, 1996; Rembold, 1996; Hashmat et al. 2012). Even with all its antimicrobial properties, it is not free from microbial diseases (Anonymous 1992; Tewari 1992). Die-back of neem caused by Phomopsis azadirachtae (Sateesh et al. 1997), is a devastating disease resulting in almost always 100% reduction in fruit yield. The annual loss due to this disease could be several million rupees. P. azadirachtae is a deuteromycetes fungus, which belongs to class coelomycetes. It has branched, septate, profuse and colorless mycelia which turns pale brown later. Conidia are produced in fruiting body called pycnidia. It produces two types of conidia in a cream to dark yellow coloured slimy cirrhi: alpha-conidia hyaline, fusiform, straight, 2-4 guttulate, smooth, aseptate, germinate readily and beta-conidia hyaline, filiform, hamate, eguttulate, aseptate, germination unknown. The fungus affects leaves, twigs and inflorescence, irrespective of age, size and height of the tree (Sateesh 1998).
The plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens are usually controlled by application of chemical based fungicides. P. azadiracahte is sensitive to fungicide such as bavistin (Sateesh 1998). The fungicides, pesticides and bactericides are extremely toxic and non-biodegradable in nature (Yadav 2010). They have various drawbacks in terms of genotoxicity (Bolognesi 2003), hepatotoxicity (Cecchi et al., 2012), reproductive disorders (Richard et al., 2005) and immunosuppression (Singh et al., 2011). Frequent use of fungicides has led to the emergence of resistant strains. Additionally, in recent years public pressure to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides in agriculture has increased. Concerns have been raised about both the environmental impact and...

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