This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Essay

1604 words - 7 pages

Introduction
Antimicrobial drug resistance (AMDR) is a clinical phenomena, it means that the ability of specific microorganism to acquire resistance property against certain antibiotic which it was susceptible before (Meyers, 1987; Russell, 1997). AMDR process is the natural consequence of pathogen adaptation to antimicrobials used in medicine, animal food, agriculture and household activities (Gould & Meer 2005, p. 617).

Antibiotic medication history is successful in human health. Antibiotic are using to killing the bacteria which can be cause illness and diseases. Antibiotic medication saved many people life from critical situation by combating bacteria. However, some bacteria have ...view middle of the document...

Good hygiene practice and appropriate infection control procedures in hospital settings are not maintain here. The essay finds the bio-ethical condition in terms of antibiotic resistant in Bangladesh.

Literature Overview:

Why need to be address the issue:
Many chronic disorders are triggered by the resistant pathogens (Karin, Lawrence & Nizet, 2006). Antibiotic resistant are causing the worst outcome for chronic and debilitating diseases of infectious origin including cancers (Nicogossian et al., 2011, p. 3). According to CDC [ Centers for disease control & prevention], antibiotic resistant pathogens are creating a threat to life saving technologies such as organ transplant, cancer therapy and other complex surgical procedures (Nicogossian et al., 2011, p. 1). Tucker (2010) identified that economic burden for antibiotic resistant exceeds more than US$ 38 billion per year in the world. In developed country, approximately seven patients out of 1000 hospitalized patients are either infected or carrier of drug resistant pathogens (Nicogossian et al., 2011, p. 2)
According to the World Health Organization (2002), approximately 1000 million people will be infected with TB, over 150 million people will be sick and 36 million people will be dying of MDR-TB within 2020. The WHO (2000) also estimated that infectious disease such as measles, diarrhea, and acute respiratory disease- Pneumonia would cause more than 13 million deaths mostly children and young adults. This organization also blamed the lack of new antibiotic development as the main culprit for the high death toll in developing countries (Selgelid, 2007, p. 220). Considering all these aspects, WHO declared this antimicrobial resistance as one of the top three issues in global health (Selgelid, 2007, p. 221).

Beauchamp and Childress (2001) identified beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice as the fundamentals of health care ethics.
According to Björnsdóttir & Hansen (2002, p. 431), antibiotics were prescribed to a patient with the intentions to help and cure him from disease symptoms which can be explained as an ethical term of beneficence and non-maleficence. Here, the autonomy of the patient is overruled by deontological point of view. In a perfect doctor -patient relationship model, a physician always must consider his present patient's physical condition, risk of contaminated disease, research, and risk of resistance during antibiotic prescribing (Leibovici, Shraga & Andreassen, 1993). According to Leibovici, Paul & Ezra (2012, p. 2), in case of viral infection, pathogens sensitive for narrow spectrum antibiotic, prolong prophylaxis, physicians do not prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the other hand, if the cost effectiveness of a treatment procedure is considered, then it becomes an example of Act Utilitarianism and contradicts with autonomy (Leibovici, Paul & Ezra, 2012, p. 3). Moreover, drug resistance also represents the injustice of distribution and...

Find Another Essay On Antimicrobial Drug Resistance

Drug Resistance Essay

1452 words - 6 pages Every year, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are threatening more and more people. As much of a problem as it is, many people are not educated on the term drug resistance. Since it is such a growing concern, it becomes confusing as to why drug resistance is occurring and what can be done to prevent it. Because drug resistance is such a health problem, determining what it is, how these bacteria can acquire the antimicrobial agents, and the possible

Multidrug TB Essay

1256 words - 6 pages downside of the culture method and the technique of antimicrobial very long time ( incubation time to determine the bacteria time to have antimicrobial results also lose all these approximations ) . So while awaiting the results of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results or no culture conditions and antibiotic therapy must be based on the treatment of the Ministry of Health to treat in the first place once confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis . Besides the findings as soon as possible and timely treatment for patients with TB also contributed significantly in limiting bacterial drug resistance.

Annotated Bibliography on Antibiotic

1201 words - 5 pages unit patients of a tertiary-care university hospital in Iran: 2006-2009. Chemotherapy, 56(6):478-84. Mohammed A, Adeshina GO, Ibrahim YK (2013) Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates from Wound Infections in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res. 12 (4): 617-621. Mulu A, Moges F, Tessema B, Kassu A (2006) Pattern and multiple drug resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from wound infection at

antibiotic resistance

923 words - 4 pages sensitivity reports, and practicing hand hygiene and standard precautions. Implications for nurse practitioners include reviewing antibiotic therapy with patients, follow prescribing guidelines and antimicrobial formulary for prescribing, and staying abreast new guidelines that may develop to ensure decrease resistance. Swabbing and screening patients suspected of having infections prior to prescribing is essential. Following the Standford guide to

Bacteria Lab Report

1750 words - 7 pages The Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility With the Utilization of Bauer-Kirby Disk Fusion MethodIntroduction:The most common way of alleviating the specific symptoms arrived from diseases is to ingest antimicrobial drugs. Chemotherapeutical antimicrobial agents are chemical compounds intended to inhibit or kill rapidly dividing microorganisms. In order to derive an antimicrobial drug, different chemical compounds must be synthetically

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Ability of Mushrooms

742 words - 3 pages , Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Escherschia coli, Aceinetobacter) and multiresistance. In human pathogenic microorganisms multiple-drug resistance has developed due to indiscriminate use of commercial antimicrobial drugs [3]. Bacterial resistance increasing to antibiotics and antimicrobials is a growing concern facing the medical, food, and sanitation industries [4]. Amongst the several mushrooms, Phellinus, a basidiomycete, is a species

Antibiotic Resistance

1174 words - 5 pages to replication stage and are therefore favoured by natural selection (Antimicrobial Resistance, 2013). These strains are then able to outcompete antibiotic susceptible bacteria in environments with antibiotics present to replicate to continue to harm the infected organism. Some mutations in the bacteria allow it to produce chemicals (enzymes) that inactivate antibiotics, while other mutations eliminate the cell target that the antibiotic attacks

The Treatment of Microbial Infections Through New Antibiotics

2083 words - 9 pages phytochemicals enables the compounds loaded on the nanoemulsion to show antibacterial activity via two different mechanisms respectively. Also, it prevents the most common problem which is faced with microorganisms, that is resistance developed against the drug. Microorganisms are not able to alter themselves in order to develop resistance against both the compounds, since both have different mechanisms of In the recent years, the search for

Essay Proforma

1144 words - 5 pages 1. The antibiotic doripenem (Doribax®) is recommended for use in patients with complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. Describe in detail what pyelonephritis is and the likely causative micro-organism(s)?  (7 marks)   Do not exceed this page – PTO    2. Describe the antimicrobial action of doripenem. Include in your answer details ofbacterial resistance mechanisms towards this class of antimicrobials. (12 marks

Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae

1698 words - 7 pages strains of bacteria have resistance to antibiotics made treatment more complicated. The main point is pneumococci becoming more resistant to common antibiotics. Whitney (2000) mainly argued that there are dramatic increases in the proportion of pneumococci that are resistant to antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents tested. This essay will firstly summarize this article and then follow by foundation and finally will discuss the impact

The Discovery of Antibiotics by Alexander Fleming

3567 words - 15 pages had never seen anything like the disease/infection that he had. At the end of last year this man died from a pathogen which was completely resistant to every type of antimicrobial drug. He is thought to be the first man in New Zealand who has died from such a virulent pathogen. His case is testament to the fact that antibiotic resistance is more prevalent in the 21st century, and that antibiotic resistance is posing an increasing threat to the

Similar Essays

Antimicrobial Peptides And Drug Resistant Bacteria

1024 words - 5 pages and resistant to treatment, researchers have begun to explore new ways of treating infections. Research has turned toward the use of antimicrobial peptides as an alternative to traditional antibiotics in treating drug resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial peptides, also referred to as defensins, are short chains of amino acids that act against microorganisms. In plants and animals these peptides are made up of anywhere between 15 and 45 amino

Evolution Of Microbial Resistance Essay

1557 words - 7 pages Jason Swartz April 22, 2014 Evolutionary Biology 451 Evolution of Microbial Resistance Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic drug in which it was originally sensitive to. Resistant organisms are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs such as antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals which makes standard treatment procedures ineffective. Antimicrobial resistance is something

Antimicrobial Drug Sensitivity Testing Essay

615 words - 2 pages      Antimicrobial sensitivity testing is important clinically because the proper selection of an antimicrobial drug in the treatment of a bacterial infection is ideally based on the knowledge of the sensitivities of the infecting organism. In this laboratory exercise you will be working within a group performing a commonly used test that is designed to determine whether or not an isolated organism is able to be treated

Effects Of Antimicrobial Use In Concetrated Animal Feeding Operations

2504 words - 11 pages considered critical for the treatment of human infections. The proposed legislation would require drug companies to conduct antimicrobial resistance risk analyses to demonstrate that use in food-producing animals would not result in an increased risk of resistant human infections. A similar ban on non-therapeutic use of antimicrobials was instituted in 2000 in all phases of the Denmark swine production industry (14). While this ban has