Antimicrobial drug resistance (AMDR) is a clinical phenomena, it means that the ability of specific microorganism to acquire resistance property against certain antibiotic which it was susceptible before (Meyers, 1987; Russell, 1997). AMDR process is the natural consequence of pathogen adaptation to antimicrobials used in medicine, animal food, agriculture and household activities (Gould & Meer 2005, p. 617).
Antibiotic medication history is successful in human health. Antibiotic are using to killing the bacteria which can be cause illness and diseases. Antibiotic medication saved many people life from critical situation by combating bacteria. However, some bacteria have ...view middle of the document...
Good hygiene practice and appropriate infection control procedures in hospital settings are not maintain here. The essay finds the bio-ethical condition in terms of antibiotic resistant in Bangladesh.
Why need to be address the issue:
Many chronic disorders are triggered by the resistant pathogens (Karin, Lawrence & Nizet, 2006). Antibiotic resistant are causing the worst outcome for chronic and debilitating diseases of infectious origin including cancers (Nicogossian et al., 2011, p. 3). According to CDC [ Centers for disease control & prevention], antibiotic resistant pathogens are creating a threat to life saving technologies such as organ transplant, cancer therapy and other complex surgical procedures (Nicogossian et al., 2011, p. 1). Tucker (2010) identified that economic burden for antibiotic resistant exceeds more than US$ 38 billion per year in the world. In developed country, approximately seven patients out of 1000 hospitalized patients are either infected or carrier of drug resistant pathogens (Nicogossian et al., 2011, p. 2)
According to the World Health Organization (2002), approximately 1000 million people will be infected with TB, over 150 million people will be sick and 36 million people will be dying of MDR-TB within 2020. The WHO (2000) also estimated that infectious disease such as measles, diarrhea, and acute respiratory disease- Pneumonia would cause more than 13 million deaths mostly children and young adults. This organization also blamed the lack of new antibiotic development as the main culprit for the high death toll in developing countries (Selgelid, 2007, p. 220). Considering all these aspects, WHO declared this antimicrobial resistance as one of the top three issues in global health (Selgelid, 2007, p. 221).
Beauchamp and Childress (2001) identified beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice as the fundamentals of health care ethics.
According to Björnsdóttir & Hansen (2002, p. 431), antibiotics were prescribed to a patient with the intentions to help and cure him from disease symptoms which can be explained as an ethical term of beneficence and non-maleficence. Here, the autonomy of the patient is overruled by deontological point of view. In a perfect doctor -patient relationship model, a physician always must consider his present patient's physical condition, risk of contaminated disease, research, and risk of resistance during antibiotic prescribing (Leibovici, Shraga & Andreassen, 1993). According to Leibovici, Paul & Ezra (2012, p. 2), in case of viral infection, pathogens sensitive for narrow spectrum antibiotic, prolong prophylaxis, physicians do not prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the other hand, if the cost effectiveness of a treatment procedure is considered, then it becomes an example of Act Utilitarianism and contradicts with autonomy (Leibovici, Paul & Ezra, 2012, p. 3). Moreover, drug resistance also represents the injustice of distribution and...