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Antioxidant Properties Of Leafy And Non Leafy Vegetables

6480 words - 26 pages

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ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LEAFY AND NON-LEAFY VEGETABLESBYAKINWEMOYE, AKINBOBOLA SOLOMON(APH/09/6139)ASEMINAR PAPERSUBMITTED AS PART OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE TITLED,STUDENTS SEMINAR (APH 500)AT THEDEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH.SCHOOL OF AGRICULTURAL AND AGRICULTURAL THECHNOLOGY,THE FEDERAL UNVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,AKURE, ONDO STATE.MAY, 2013CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONEnvironment is the combination of the conditions in which the organism lives excluding those arising from heredity. The interaction between broilers and the environment remains an important problem in poultry production. If the environment changes, broilers adapt in order to minimize the effect of changes in growth rate, feed efficiency and mortality rate. Today broilers are selected and managed with the aim of decreasing mortality rate by improving feed efficiency and body weight at market age, but this cannot be achieved if poultry experience problems of heat stress (Gereat et al., 1993).Housing for broiler production is provided to maintain well defined environmental conditions and that satisfies their microclimate needs for optimum production. Adequate housing and stocking density also showed great importance for broiler production. Excessive crowding and high temperatures during summer reduced feed intake, which automatically lead to reduced body weight and resulted in a higher mortality rate in broilers. The use of unsuitable genotypes in hot regions results in large economic losses due to decreased growth, reduced body weight gain and higher mortality (Yalcini et al., 1997).Heat stress results from a negative balance between the net amount of energy flowing from the animal's body to its surrounding environment and the amount of heat energy produced by the animal. This imbalance may be caused by variations of a combination of environmental factors (e.g. sunlight, thermal irradiation, and air temperature, humidity and movement), and characteristics of the animal (e.g. species, metabolism rate, and thermoregulatory mechanisms). Environmental stressors, such as heat stress, are particularly detrimental to livestock production (Nienaber et al., 2007). The issue of environmental stress has quickly become a great point of interest in livestock production, particularly due to public awareness and concerns. The importance of animal responses to environmental challenges applies to all species. However, poultry seems to be particularly sensitive to temperature-associated environmental challenges, especially heat stress. It has been suggested that modern poultry genotypes produce more body heat, due to their greater metabolic activity (Settar et al., 1999). Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare.In meeting the goal of every poultry farmer which is profit maximization through...

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