The topic selected for the Session Long Project is based on antiviral drug research and development and their susceptibility leading to resistance of the influenza virus. Considered a relatively young field with its first major impact in the early 1960’s antiviral drug research continues to expand and attain incredible results (Field & De Clercq, 2004). This project has enabled me to better understand the general process for antiviral and antiretroviral drugs to include safety and efficiency assessments, fielding, antiviral drug resistance and overcoming resistance using multiple drug combinations.
Research Literature Reviews Related to Antiviral Drugs and Influenza Resistance
The first research article in this review is entitled “A single intramuscular injection of neuraminidase inhibitor Peramivir demonstrates antiviral activity against novel pandemic A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus infection in mice” (Bantia, et al., 2011). The study performed in 2009 by Bantia, Kellogg, Parker, Upshaw, Ilyushina, and Babu used a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by giving a single intramuscular injection of one of the following drugs: Peramivir, Zanamivir, or Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in a variety of dosages to determine drug efficacy in mice infected with the H1N1 influenza virus that caused the 2009 Pandemic in the United States. The influenza “A” virus or pandemic A/California/04/2009 used in the study was generated by Dr. Natalia A. Ilyushina of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, the mice were obtained from Charles Rivers Laboratories Raleigh, NC and the antiviral drugs: Peramivir, oseltamivir carboxylate and oseltamivir phosphate (oseltamivir) were synthesized by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in Birmingham, AL. The study looked at mortality rates and the mean day of death of the mice following infection with H1N1 and weight loss differences in the mice by performing a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mice experienced weight loss and mortality following H1N1 infection therefore efficacy of the antivirals was evaluated on weight loss per mouse and mean day to the death of the mice. Significant results showed mice injected with Peramivir had better survivability rates and less weight loss than those receiving the same dosages of Zanamivir, and Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) when initially infected with the H1N1 influenza virus. The alpha level in the study was set at less than 1 percent due to the fact that neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) types of antiviral drugs are known to counteract the effects of influenza regardless of the actual type or dosage. No confounding factors were noted.
The next research study, “Evaluation of a rapid molecular algorithm for detection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and screening for a key oseltamivir resistance (H275Y) substitution in neuraminidase” was performed from April through July 2009 by Van der Vries, Jonges, Herfst, Maaskant, Van der Linden, Guldemeester, Aron, G, Bestebroer,...