Ap Biology Lab Report For Population Genetics And Microbiology

2632 words - 11 pages

Observing Various Microevolution Cases using Population Genetics:Using a Population Gene Pool Simulator, PopCycleAbstractThe study of microevolution was tested in this laboratory experiment through the examination, observation, and analysis of various population conditions, some under the Hardy-Weinberg Theory of Genetic Equilibrium, which would advance the student scientists' understanding of both microevolution and the mathematical aspects of microevolution known as population genetics. The students first predicted the result of each of the 6 cases. The data was found using a program called PopCycle (Herron 2002), which picked genotypes randomly, and showed the results after particular conditions were entered. Students took these numbers and visually displayed them in charts. They configured the predicted amount of adults for each genotype by using the Hardy-Weinberg mathematical equation p2 + 2pq + q2 to figure out the expected adults for the genotypes AA, Aa, and aa. The students also produced graphs showing allelic frequencies and genotype frequencies. They concluded that their original hypotheses were indeed correct. Therefore, there was support that the Hardy-Weinberg Theory and the 5 cases for evolution were indeed accurate in their own particular cases (170 words).IntroductionIn this report, students conduct a laboratory procedure that exemplifies certain occurrences of genetics among populations. In other words, the students predict and observe the results in a population from generation-to-generation due to certain specific conditions, also known as a study called microevolution (Pearson Education, Inc. 2002). In some cases, evidence supports evolution. Evolution is defined as the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today (Pearson Education, Inc. 2002). There are five known cases for evolution, known as selection, migration, non-random mating, genetic drift, and mutations. Selection is best described by the alteration of survival rates. For example, if a specific genotype (eg. AA, or homozygous dominant) is lethal, there will be no (0) adults in the population. Or perhaps there are limiting factors that limit a particular genotype to 50%, that case too is also selection. Migration is also known as gene flow. When members of a population migrate or move away from their habitat, various genes enter different communities and other populations. Migration rates are originally 100% if there is no net movement. Non-random mating means that mates are selected individually, and that perhaps two organisms mate so that their offspring will have beneficial features, also changing the species' possible features. Genetic drift occurs in small populations, and it is the change of the population's gene pool due to chance (Pearson Education, Inc. 2002). Due to small numbers in the population, results are inconsistent and therefore change is frequent. Lastly, mutations are a...

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