Ap World Notes Chapter 16 Notes Ap World History Notes

2101 words - 9 pages

Chapter 16
The World Economy
I. Introduction
A. What are consequences of…
1. Voyages of Columbus
2. Exploration of Europeans
3. Empires built by European conquerors/missionaries
B. Consequences
1. Power shift
2. Redefinition of interchange
D. Patterns of diffusion
1. Classical – developing regional economies/cultures – Medit./China
a. External conflicts existed, but not that important
2. Postclassical Era – contacts increase
a. Missionary religions spread
b. Interregional trade key component of economies – bet. continents
c. Some regions dominated trade – Muslims then Mongols
3. 1450-1750 – Eve of the Early Modern Period
a. New areas of world brought into global community – Americas
b. Rate of global trade increased – Southeast Asia
c. Relationships between groups changed power structure
d. Effects on Europe – dominated trade
1. Changes within Europe
2. Parts of world become dependent on Europe
3. Used New World goods to pay for Old World luxury items
a. Americas > Silver > China
E. Foods
1. 30% of world’s food comes from Americas – potato, corn
a. Corn embraced by Africa – later by Europe
1. Thought spread plague – also not in Bible – is it kosher?
II. The West’s First Outreach: Maritime Power
A. Introduction
1. Western nations unprecedented mastery of oceans
a. Spain, Portugal > Britain, Holland, France
2. Who pushes trade? Princes, clergy, merchants
a. Muslims – superior economy, goods
1. European nobility used to luxury goods
b. Mongols – sped up exchanges
c. Fall of Khans – China a mystery again
3. What were Europe’s disadvantages?
a. Ignorant of world – earth flat? Indigenous warriors
b. Fear of Ottoman Empire
c. Lack of gold to fund
d. Limited distance of small, oar-propelled ships
B. New Technology
1. What were the key technological innovations that helped with trade?
a. deep ships able to carry a lot of armaments/weapons
b. compass
c. mapmaking
d. explosives adapted to gunnery
1. Metallurgy adapted Chinese invention
e. Europe has unprecedented advantage on sea
C. Portugal and Spain Lead the Pack
1. Why Portugal?
a. Western geographic location
b. Rulers
1. Excitement of discovery
a. Could harm Muslim world
b. Could get really rich
c. Henry the Navigator – 1434 – African Coast
d. 1488 – Around Cape of Good Hope
e. 1498 – Vasco de Gama
1. Threatened by Spain – Columbus 1492
2. Four ships + Hindi pilot from Africa > India
3. Brought iron pots, gold for spices
4. Ships threatened, killed Indian merchants
f. Portuguese then hit Brazil, Africa, India, China, Japan
2. Why Spain?
a. Recently freed from Muslim rule
b. Missionary zeal
c. Desire for riches
d. 1492 – Columbus – India/Indies – earth round
1. Mistaken Americas > “Indians”
2. Amerigo Vespucci – realized New World
e. 1521 Magellan rounds Southern tip – heads to Indonesia
f. 16th century – Spanish sent military force to back up American claims
D. Northern European Expeditions
1. End of 16th century – Holland, France, England join game – why?
a. Strong, wealthy monarchies
b. Zealous...

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