Application Of The Theory Of Continuity

694 words - 3 pages

In the theoretical part of the work there was an extensive review of the subject literature. Number of aspects of the emulsions’ stability and phenomena associated with phases’ separation (creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, coalescence) were described. The basic issues related to the traffic theory (engineering) were also presented.
In the experimental part of the work studies of emulsions’ stability were conducted. Dispersed phases comprised canola oil with concentrations of 10÷40%wt while continuous phases were aqueous gelatin solutions with concentrations of 0.1÷0.4%wt. Variable parameter was also time of emulsification (1, 2, 3 and 5 minutes). The emulsions were prepared by adding small portions of dispersed phase to continuous phase while stirring using 250-watt Braun hand homogenizer. The first test stand comprised Nikon optical microscope connected to a video camera. Microscope allowed to measure diameters of droplets of the dispersed phase. The second test stand was Turbiscan Lab Expert (France, Formulaction) – device used to measure backscattered light in colloids, which arose on droplets of dispersed phase. Obtained data – full creaming profiles (backscattering versus sample’s height at different times) – were used to characterize the stability of emulsions.
Observing the analogy between behavior of vehicles in traffic and movements of droplets of dispersed phase, in present M. S. thesis models taken from the theory of continuity (derived from traffic engineering) were proposed to describe the phenomenon of phases’ separation of emulsions. Traffic engineering is a domain that uses to describe the movements of vehicles (among others) mathematical models (macroscopic and microscopic). Microscopic models represent the motions of individual vehicles, so they are not very practical to use, while macroscopic models represent steady stream of traffic by three characteristic parameters: intensity, density and average speed of vehicles. These parameters are connected by a dependency called equation of state of traffic flow. There are three basic states of traffic flow: free, partly forced and forced. For the last type of traffic the hydrodynamic analogy was used and so-called continuity equation of stream of vehicles was formulated. It was correct for...

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