Method of Communication and Different Uses of Communication
With the development of civilization and written languages came the need
for more frequent and reliable methods of communication allowing messages to
reach longer distances. This was essential to the control of trade and other
affairs between nations and empires.
Early man used cave walls as the media on which messages could be
transcribed, this was common for many years, until the Egyptians discovered a
special kind of rush (Papyrus) that could be woven to form a portable writing
material. In about 105AD the Chinese discovered a way to make a similar
substance from wood pulp.
Over the next few centuries printing techniques advanced rapidly,
especially through the use of steam power. The first typesetting machine, the
Linotype, was patented in 1884 by the German-American Ottmar Mergenthaler.
In the meantime, postal services and moved from being privately to
nationally owned, and long distance postal services became an affordable option.
For the first time, an ordinary person could correspond with people in other
countries. A visual semaphore system was also implemented in both Europe and the
United States, providing a way of ‘echoing' messages nationally via large towers
placed in strategic positions; however this proved slow as each method had to be
verified to ensure message accuracy.
Following the discovery and partial understanding of electricity in the
18th Century scientists looked towards a way of relaying messages electronically.
This attracted great interest because of the speed and efficiency such a system
would bring, nevertheless it was not until 1837 that the first practical
telegraph system was produced. In the years that followed various offshoots were
announced, modern telex systems are an improved version of this basic concept.
Now that the basic frontiers of electronics had been broken,
telecommunications moved into a new era, in 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented
the worlds first true speech telephone. Research into magnetism had also
revealed the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents, thus
laying the technical foundation for wireless telegraphy. Twenty five years later
the Italian inventor Marchese Guglielmo Marconi sent a wireless signal across
the Atlantic Ocean, opening up new possibilities for communication systems.
Satellite technology had been steadily increasing, with several already
launched. America was the leader in this technology, with satellites programs
such as the COMSAT and INTELSAT systems. These networks of geostationary
satellites covered the entire globe,...